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DATE 2016-12-01

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Key: id Value: 543572

Key: archive_learn Value: 2016-12-01

MESSAGE
DATE 2016-12-15
FROM Ruben Safir
SUBJECT Subject: [Learn] Fwd: [dinosaur] Elephant bird nuclear genome fragments
From learn-bounces-at-nylxs.com Thu Dec 15 17:02:46 2016
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Subject: [Learn] Fwd: [dinosaur] Elephant bird nuclear genome fragments
revise origin and evolution of palaeognaths (ratites)
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-------- Forwarded Message --------
Subject: [dinosaur] Elephant bird nuclear genome fragments revise origin
and evolution of palaeognaths (ratites)
Date: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 12:36:25 -0800
From: Ben Creisler
Reply-To: Ben Creisler
To: dinosaur-l-at-usc.edu

Ben Creisler
bcreisler-at-gmail.com


A new paper:

Takahiro Yonezawa, Takahiro Segawa, Hiroshi Mori, Paula F. Campos, Yuichi
Hongoh, Hideki Endo, Ayumi Akiyoshi, Naoki Kohno, Shin Nishida, Jiaqi Wu,
Haofei Jin, Jun Adachi, Hirohisa Kishino, Ken Kurokawa, Yoshifumi Nogi,
Hideyuki Tanabe, Harutaka Mukoyama, Kunio Yoshida, Armand Rasoamiaramanana,
Satoshi Yamagishi, Yoshihiro Hayashi, Akira Yoshida, Hiroko Koike, Fumihito
Akishinonomiya, Eske Willerslev & Masami Hasegawa (2016)
Phylogenomics and Morphology of Extinct Paleognaths Reveal the Origin and
Evolution of the Ratites.
Current Biology (advance online publication)
DOI:
https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=3Dhttp-3A__dx.doi.org_10.1016_j.=
cub.2016.10.029&d=3DDgIFaQ&c=3DclK7kQUTWtAVEOVIgvi0NU5BOUHhpN0H8p7CSfnc_gI&=
r=3DRy_mO4IFaUmGof_Yl9MyZgecRCKHn5g4z1CYJgFW9SI&m=3Df87mCjW4we4mqmpNHRcFK9f=
xNe-PKPVHplOwLgJTjvM&s=3DoZb9XbNr26xY3aitmUkAArZ9CM87RPVbnKrqenRpD_Y&e=3D
https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=3Dhttp-3A__www.cell.com_current-=
2Dbiology_fulltext_S0960-2D9822-2816-2931214-2D3&d=3DDgIFaQ&c=3DclK7kQUTWtA=
VEOVIgvi0NU5BOUHhpN0H8p7CSfnc_gI&r=3DRy_mO4IFaUmGof_Yl9MyZgecRCKHn5g4z1CYJg=
FW9SI&m=3Df87mCjW4we4mqmpNHRcFK9fxNe-PKPVHplOwLgJTjvM&s=3D0MePL0Q1XPiSSUISO=
MRFl9pLZp_MvRXebkFuagkUcUc&e=3D

Highlights

Nuclear genome fragments from extinct elephant bird species were recovered
A stable phylogenomic time tree for the Palaeognathae was inferred
A Laurasian origin of Palaeognathae is supported by molecular and
morphological data
Ancestral paleognaths had small body size (~3.5=E2=80=935 kg) and probably =
were
volant

Summary

The Palaeognathae comprise the flightless ratites and the volant tinamous,
and together with the Neognathae constitute the extant members of class
Aves. It is commonly believed that Palaeognathae originated in Gondwana
since most of the living species are found in the Southern Hemisphere.
However, this hypothesis has been questioned because the fossil paleognaths
are mostly from the Northern Hemisphere in their earliest time (Paleocene)
and possessed many putative ancestral characters. Uncertainties regarding
the origin and evolution of Palaeognathae stem from the difficulty in
estimating their divergence times and their remarkable morphological
convergence. Here, we recovered nuclear genome fragments from extinct
elephant birds, which enabled us to reconstruct a reliable phylogenomic
time tree for the Palaeognathae. Based on the tree, we identified
homoplasies in morphological traits of paleognaths and reconstructed their
morphology-based phylogeny including fossil species without molecular data.
In contrast to the prevailing theories, the fossil paleognaths from the
Northern Hemisphere were placed as the basal lineages. Combined with our
stable divergence time estimates that enabled a valid argument regarding
the correlation with geological events, we propose a new evolutionary
scenario that contradicts the traditional view. The ancestral Palaeognathae
were volant, as estimated from their molecular evolutionary rates, and
originated during the Late Cretaceous in the Northern Hemisphere. They
migrated to the Southern Hemisphere and speciated explosively around the
Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. They then extended their distribution to the
Gondwana-derived landmasses, such as New Zealand and Madagascar, by
overseas dispersal. Gigantism subsequently occurred independently on each
landmass.

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