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DATE 2017-02-01

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MESSAGE
DATE 2017-02-10
FROM Ruben Safir
SUBJECT Subject: [Learn] Fwd: [dinosaur] Euchambersia (Therapsida) envenoming
From learn-bounces-at-nylxs.com Fri Feb 10 15:51:56 2017
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Subject: [Learn] Fwd: [dinosaur] Euchambersia (Therapsida) envenoming
capacity reappraised after CT scan (free pdf)
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-------- Forwarded Message --------
Subject: [dinosaur] Euchambersia (Therapsida) envenoming capacity
reappraised after CT scan (free pdf)
Date: Fri, 10 Feb 2017 10:49:08 -0800
From: Ben Creisler
Reply-To: Ben Creisler
To: dinosaur-l-at-usc.edu

Ben Creisler
bcreisler-at-gmail.com

New in PLoS ONE:


Julien Benoit, Luke A. Norton, Paul R. Manger & Bruce S. Rubidge (2017)
Reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia mirabilis
(Therapsida, Therocephalia) using =CE=BCCT-scanning techniques.
PLoS ONE 12(2): e0172047.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0172047
https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=3Dhttp-3A__journals.plos.org_plo=
sone_article-3Fid-3D10.1371_journal.pone.0172047&d=3DDwIFaQ&c=3DclK7kQUTWtA=
VEOVIgvi0NU5BOUHhpN0H8p7CSfnc_gI&r=3DRy_mO4IFaUmGof_Yl9MyZgecRCKHn5g4z1CYJg=
FW9SI&m=3DK2C6-vGJhlGEwdQSiq1_PIDuAUYCBYg-1Azi--DOjck&s=3DyT8TLwDwzTLbL9za7=
zFxM5fkD7QxWopvgciOB8EEWX0&e=3D



Euchambersia mirabilis is an iconic species of Permo-Triassic therapsid
because of its unusually large external maxillary fossa linked through a
sulcus to a ridged canine. This anatomy led to the commonly accepted
conclusion that the large fossa accommodated a venom gland. However, this
hypothesis remains untested so far. Here, we conducted a =CE=BCCT scan assi=
sted
reappraisal of the envenoming capacity of Euchambersia, with a special
focus on the anatomy of the maxillary fossa and canines. This study shows
that the fossa, presumably for the venom-producing gland, is directly
linked to the maxillary canal, which carries the trigeminal nerve
(responsible for the sensitivity of the face). The peculiar anatomy of the
maxillary canal suggests important reorganisation in the somatosensory
system and that a ganglion could possibly have been present in the
maxillary fossa instead of a venom gland. Nevertheless, the venom gland
hypothesis is still preferred since we describe, for the first time, the
complete crown morphology of the incisiform teeth of Euchambersia, which
strongly suggests that the complete dentition was ridged. Therefore
Euchambersia manifests evidence of all characteristics of venomous animals:
a venom gland (in the maxillary fossa), a mechanism to deliver the venom
(the maxillary canal and/or the sulcus located ventrally to the fossa); and
an apparatus with which to inflict a wound for venom delivery (the ridged
dentition).

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