Mon May 23 03:57:22 2022
EVENTS
 FREE
SOFTWARE
INSTITUTE

POLITICS
JOBS
MEMBERS'
CORNER

MAILING
LIST

NYLXS Mailing Lists and Archives
NYLXS Members have a lot to say and share but we don't keep many secrets. Join the Hangout Mailing List and say your peice.

DATE 2017-08-01

HANGOUT

2022-05-23 | 2022-04-23 | 2022-03-23 | 2022-02-23 | 2022-01-23 | 2021-12-23 | 2021-11-23 | 2021-10-23 | 2021-09-23 | 2021-08-23 | 2021-07-23 | 2021-06-23 | 2021-05-23 | 2021-04-23 | 2021-03-23 | 2021-02-23 | 2021-01-23 | 2020-12-23 | 2020-11-23 | 2020-10-23 | 2020-09-23 | 2020-08-23 | 2020-07-23 | 2020-06-23 | 2020-05-23 | 2020-04-23 | 2020-03-23 | 2020-02-23 | 2020-01-23 | 2019-12-23 | 2019-11-23 | 2019-10-23 | 2019-09-23 | 2019-08-23 | 2019-07-23 | 2019-06-23 | 2019-05-23 | 2019-04-23 | 2019-03-23 | 2019-02-23 | 2019-01-23 | 2018-12-23 | 2018-11-23 | 2018-10-23 | 2018-09-23 | 2018-08-23 | 2018-07-23 | 2018-06-23 | 2018-05-23 | 2018-04-23 | 2018-03-23 | 2018-02-23 | 2018-01-23 | 2017-12-23 | 2017-11-23 | 2017-10-23 | 2017-09-23 | 2017-08-23 | 2017-07-23 | 2017-06-23 | 2017-05-23 | 2017-04-23 | 2017-03-23 | 2017-02-23 | 2017-01-23 | 2016-12-23 | 2016-11-23 | 2016-10-23 | 2016-09-23 | 2016-08-23 | 2016-07-23 | 2016-06-23 | 2016-05-23 | 2016-04-23 | 2016-03-23 | 2016-02-23 | 2016-01-23 | 2015-12-23 | 2015-11-23 | 2015-10-23 | 2015-09-23 | 2015-08-23 | 2015-07-23 | 2015-06-23 | 2015-05-23 | 2015-04-23 | 2015-03-23 | 2015-02-23 | 2015-01-23 | 2014-12-23 | 2014-11-23 | 2014-10-23 | 2014-09-23 | 2014-08-23 | 2014-07-23 | 2014-06-23 | 2014-05-23 | 2014-04-23 | 2014-03-23 | 2014-02-23 | 2014-01-23 | 2013-12-23 | 2013-11-23 | 2013-10-23 | 2013-09-23 | 2013-08-23 | 2013-07-23 | 2013-06-23 | 2013-05-23 | 2013-04-23 | 2013-03-23 | 2013-02-23 | 2013-01-23 | 2012-12-23 | 2012-11-23 | 2012-10-23 | 2012-09-23 | 2012-08-23 | 2012-07-23 | 2012-06-23 | 2012-05-23 | 2012-04-23 | 2012-03-23 | 2012-02-23 | 2012-01-23 | 2011-12-23 | 2011-11-23 | 2011-10-23 | 2011-09-23 | 2011-08-23 | 2011-07-23 | 2011-06-23 | 2011-05-23 | 2011-04-23 | 2011-03-23 | 2011-02-23 | 2011-01-23 | 2010-12-23 | 2010-11-23 | 2010-10-23 | 2010-09-23 | 2010-08-23 | 2010-07-23 | 2010-06-23 | 2010-05-23 | 2010-04-23 | 2010-03-23 | 2010-02-23 | 2010-01-23 | 2009-12-23 | 2009-11-23 | 2009-10-23 | 2009-09-23 | 2009-08-23 | 2009-07-23 | 2009-06-23 | 2009-05-23 | 2009-04-23 | 2009-03-23 | 2009-02-23 | 2009-01-23 | 2008-12-23 | 2008-11-23 | 2008-10-23 | 2008-09-23 | 2008-08-23 | 2008-07-23 | 2008-06-23 | 2008-05-23 | 2008-04-23 | 2008-03-23 | 2008-02-23 | 2008-01-23 | 2007-12-23 | 2007-11-23 | 2007-10-23 | 2007-09-23 | 2007-08-23 | 2007-07-23 | 2007-06-23 | 2007-05-23 | 2007-04-23 | 2007-03-23 | 2007-02-23 | 2007-01-23 | 2006-12-23 | 2006-11-23 | 2006-10-23 | 2006-09-23 | 2006-08-23 | 2006-07-23 | 2006-06-23 | 2006-05-23 | 2006-04-23 | 2006-03-23 | 2006-02-23 | 2006-01-23 | 2005-12-23 | 2005-11-23 | 2005-10-23 | 2005-09-23 | 2005-08-23 | 2005-07-23 | 2005-06-23 | 2005-05-23 | 2005-04-23 | 2005-03-23 | 2005-02-23 | 2005-01-23 | 2004-12-23 | 2004-11-23 | 2004-10-23 | 2004-09-23 | 2004-08-23 | 2004-07-23 | 2004-06-23 | 2004-05-23 | 2004-04-23 | 2004-03-23 | 2004-02-23 | 2004-01-23 | 2003-12-23 | 2003-11-23 | 2003-10-23 | 2003-09-23 | 2003-08-23 | 2003-07-23 | 2003-06-23 | 2003-05-23 | 2003-04-23 | 2003-03-23 | 2003-02-23 | 2003-01-23 | 2002-12-23 | 2002-11-23 | 2002-10-23 | 2002-09-23 | 2002-08-23 | 2002-07-23 | 2002-06-23 | 2002-05-23 | 2002-04-23 | 2002-03-23 | 2002-02-23 | 2002-01-23 | 2001-12-23 | 2001-11-23 | 2001-10-23 | 2001-09-23 | 2001-08-23 | 2001-07-23 | 2001-06-23 | 2001-05-23 | 2001-04-23 | 2001-03-23 | 2001-02-23 | 2001-01-23 | 2000-12-23 | 2000-11-23 | 2000-10-23 | 2000-09-23 | 2000-08-23 | 2000-07-23 | 2000-06-23 | 2000-05-23 | 2000-04-23 | 2000-03-23 | 2000-02-23 | 2000-01-23 | 1999-12-23

Key: Value:

Key: Value:

MESSAGE
DATE 2017-08-23
FROM Ruben Safir
SUBJECT Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] One of the best reviews of Packet switching I've
From hangout-bounces-at-nylxs.com Wed Aug 23 14:53:15 2017
Return-Path:
X-Original-To: archive-at-nylxs.com
Delivered-To: archive-at-nylxs.com
Received: from www.mrbrklyn.com (www.mrbrklyn.com [96.57.23.82])
by mrbrklyn.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id BFB6B163F55;
Wed, 23 Aug 2017 14:53:13 -0400 (EDT)
X-Original-To: hangout-at-nylxs.com
Delivered-To: hangout-at-nylxs.com
Received: from [10.0.0.62] (flatbush.mrbrklyn.com [10.0.0.62])
by mrbrklyn.com (Postfix) with ESMTP id B4E80160876
for ; Wed, 23 Aug 2017 14:53:10 -0400 (EDT)
To: Hangout
From: Ruben Safir
Message-ID: <0d1dbf1e-e4c8-32f6-a8c1-e32f45581650-at-mrbrklyn.com>
Date: Wed, 23 Aug 2017 14:53:10 -0400
User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (X11; Linux x86_64; rv:52.0) Gecko/20100101
Thunderbird/52.2.1
MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Language: en-US
Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] One of the best reviews of Packet switching I've
seen
X-BeenThere: hangout-at-nylxs.com
X-Mailman-Version: 2.1.17
Precedence: list
List-Id: NYLXS Tech Talk and Politics
List-Unsubscribe: ,

List-Post:
List-Help:
List-Subscribe: ,

Content-Type: text/plain; charset="us-ascii"
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit
Errors-To: hangout-bounces-at-nylxs.com
Sender: "Hangout"

https://blog.cloudflare.com/ip-fragmentation-is-broken/?utm_content=bufferd16b5&utm_medium=social&utm_source=linkedin.com&utm_campaign=buffer


Broken packets: IP fragmentation is flawed
18 Aug 2017 by Marek Majkowski.
inShare56
Tweet

As opposed to the public telephone network, the internet has a Packet
Switched design. But just how big can these packets be?

CC BY 2.0 image by ajmexico, inspired by

This is an old question and the IPv4 RFCs answer it pretty clearly. The
idea was to split the problem into two separate concerns:

What is the maximum packet size that can be handled by operating
systems on both ends?

What is the maximum permitted datagram size that can be safely
pushed through the physical connections between the hosts?

When a packet is too big for a physical link, an intermediate router
might chop it into multiple smaller datagrams in order to make it fit.
This process is called "forward" IP fragmentation and the smaller
datagrams are called IP fragments1.

Image by Geoff Huston, reproduced with permission

The IPv4 specification defines the minimal requirements. From the RFC791:

Every internet destination must be able to receive a datagram
of 576 octets either in one piece or in fragments to
be reassembled. [...]

Every internet module must be able to forward a datagram of 68
octets without further fragmentation. [...]

The first value - permitted reassembled packet size - is typically not
problematic. IPv4 defines the minimum as 576 bytes, but popular
operating systems can cope with very big packets, typically up to 65KiB.

The second one is more troublesome. All physical connections have
inherent datagram size limits, depending on the specific medium they
use. For example Frame Relay can send datagrams between 46 and 4,470
bytes. ATM uses fixed 53 bytes, classical Ethernet can do between 64 and
1500 bytes.

The spec defines the minimal requirement - each physical link must be
able to transmit datagrams of at least 68 bytes. For IPv6 that minimal
value has been bumped up to 1,280 bytes (see RFC2460).

On the other hand, the maximum datagram size that can be transmitted
without fragmentation is not defined by any specification and varies by
link type. This value is called the MTU (Maximum Transmission Unit)2.

--
So many immigrant groups have swept through our town
that Brooklyn, like Atlantis, reaches mythological
proportions in the mind of the world - RI Safir 1998
http://www.mrbrklyn.com

DRM is THEFT - We are the STAKEHOLDERS - RI Safir 2002
http://www.nylxs.com - Leadership Development in Free Software
http://www2.mrbrklyn.com/resources - Unpublished Archive
http://www.coinhangout.com - coins!
http://www.brooklyn-living.com

Being so tracked is for FARM ANIMALS and and extermination camps,
but incompatible with living as a free human being. -RI Safir 2013
_______________________________________________
Hangout mailing list
Hangout-at-nylxs.com
http://www.nylxs.com/mailman/listinfo/hangout

  1. 2017-08-02 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] bitcoin chaos
  2. 2017-08-03 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] age discrimination in IT
  3. 2017-08-04 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] the tip of the precipice.
  4. 2017-08-04 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Chinese world wide surveillance through drone
  5. 2017-08-04 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] smartphones and the death of teen rebellions
  6. 2017-08-04 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Education System is all but dead
  7. 2017-08-05 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] MTA
  8. 2017-08-05 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] MTA
  9. 2017-08-05 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] MTA
  10. 2017-08-06 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] SMS through Linux
  11. 2017-08-06 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] SMS through Linux
  12. 2017-08-06 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Education System is all but dead
  13. 2017-08-04 Paul Robert Marino <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Education System is all but dead
  14. 2017-08-06 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] printer attacks
  15. 2017-08-06 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Mail Server set ups
  16. 2017-08-07 Gabor Szabo <gabor-at-szabgab.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] [Perlweekly] #315 - *Welcome to TPCiA - The Perl
  17. 2017-08-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Holographs you can touch and more
  18. 2017-08-07 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] MTA Crisis
  19. 2017-08-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Drug Price Kickbacks to insurance companies makes
  20. 2017-08-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Movie of the Week
  21. 2017-08-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] MTA Crisis
  22. 2017-08-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] MTA Crisis
  23. 2017-08-09 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Aaron Schwartz
  24. 2017-08-10 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] hangout at KR
  25. 2017-08-08 Poel Group Staffing <jobs-at-poelcareers.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] a suitable position
  26. 2017-08-10 NCPA eCommunications <ncpa.ecommunications-at-ncpanet.org> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] NCPA's qAM: Generic Drug Prices Are Down,
  27. 2017-08-13 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Language theory
  28. 2017-08-13 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] computational palaeobiology
  29. 2017-08-14 Gabor Szabo <gabor-at-szabgab.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] [Perlweekly] #316 - Winter, er CPAN Day,
  30. 2017-08-14 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] North Korean Economy doing fine, thank you..
  31. 2017-08-15 NYOUG <execdir-at-nyoug.org> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Upcoming Events for Oracle Professionals
  32. 2017-08-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Surveillance State and another reason to have
  33. 2017-08-15 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] unsupervised-learning
  34. 2017-08-15 From: "Yi Qian, IEEE ICC'18 TPC Chair" <noreply-at-comsoc.org> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] IEEE ICC'18 Tutorial Proposals due 15 September
  35. 2017-08-16 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Cewllphone Hardware development
  36. 2017-08-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Cewllphone Hardware development
  37. 2017-08-17 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] How to get a road approved
  38. 2017-08-17 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Iphones and You
  39. 2017-08-18 Ruben Safir <ruben.safir-at-my.liu.edu> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] =?utf-8?q?Fwd=3A_News_from_Hackster=2Eio_?=
  40. 2017-08-21 Ruben Safir <ruben.safir-at-my.liu.edu> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Fwd: We found the name "Duck Donald" mentioned in
  41. 2017-08-22 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Movie of the Week
  42. 2017-08-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Free Movies at the WTC
  43. 2017-08-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Jobs and Networking
  44. 2017-08-22 James E Keenan <jkeenan-at-pobox.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Social meeting at d.b.a. next Tuesday, August 29
  45. 2017-08-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] One of the best reviews of Packet switching I've
  46. 2017-08-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] facebook crap
  47. 2017-08-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] jobs
  48. 2017-08-23 From: "S." <sman356-at-yahoo.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] facebook crap
  49. 2017-08-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] jobs | | I see nothing about authorization to
  50. 2017-08-23 From: "S." <sman356-at-yahoo.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] jobs | | I see nothing about authorization to
  51. 2017-08-25 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] betty sue got married
  52. 2017-08-25 mrbrklyn <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] betty sue got married
  53. 2017-08-24 IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society <noreply-at-embs.org> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Your EMB Weekly Newsletter is HERE!
  54. 2017-08-26 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Trying to read the wanted adds
  55. 2017-08-28 Gabor Szabo <gabor-at-szabgab.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] [Perlweekly] #318 - Developer Weekly - First
  56. 2017-08-28 From: "S." <sman356-at-yahoo.com> Subject: [Hangout - NYLXS] Arm pain: gadolinium
  57. 2017-08-28 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Arm pain: gadolinium
  58. 2017-08-29 From: "Mancini, Sabin (DFS)" <Sabin.Mancini-at-dfs.ny.gov> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Trying to read the wanted adds | | |
  59. 2017-08-29 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Trying to read the wanted adds | | |
  60. 2017-08-29 From: "Mancini, Sabin (DFS)" <Sabin.Mancini-at-dfs.ny.gov> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Trying to read the wanted adds | | | Like
  61. 2017-08-29 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Trying to read the wanted adds | | | Like
  62. 2017-08-29 From: "Mancini, Sabin (DFS)" <Sabin.Mancini-at-dfs.ny.gov> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Trying to read the wanted adds | | |
  63. 2017-08-29 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Trying to read the wanted adds | | |
  64. 2017-08-29 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Trying to read the wanted adds | | |
  65. 2017-08-30 From: "S." <sman356-at-yahoo.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Trying to read the wanted adds | | |
  66. 2017-08-30 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] Trying to read the wanted adds | | |
  67. 2017-08-30 From: "S." <sman356-at-yahoo.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] NYS | NYC jobs
  68. 2017-08-30 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [Hangout - NYLXS] NYS | NYC jobs

NYLXS are Do'ers and the first step of Doing is Joining! Join NYLXS and make a difference in your community today!