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DATE 2010-02-01

HANGOUT

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Key: Value:

Key: Value:

MESSAGE
DATE 2010-02-03
FROM Ruben Safir
SUBJECT Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop I datatypes cont..
In C and C++, there is three other data types that need to be discussed.
All three are essential for advanced programming, and are low level.
The are the Pointer, the Reference (which exists only in C++ and not C)
and the Function or Method in Object Oriented Parlance. Lets first
look at the pointer.

What is Memory? What is a Variable? What is an Address?

The pointer is a variable that stores a memory address. In a simplified
picture, imagine that your computer has one megabyte of RAM. Each
location in Ram has an address that the CPU understands. And you can
ask the CPU to go to any specific location in Ram and read the date at
that point. Now from the perspective of Ram, it doesn't care what the
data stored at any memory location represents. To the Ram and the CPU,
it is just binary bytes of information. And the CPU can read that byte,
regardless on what that data represents to the user or other parts of
the computer, or other programming. It just reads bytes. And after it
reads a Word of data at some specific address, it can easily read the
next address space, and the next and so on. Now this is the case all
the time, in any programming language. Now the details of all this
we're not going to get into the details of. We'll wait for the Assembly
Language Workshop for a discussion of the details of how a CPU fetches
and processes data from Ram. But we can understand that all the memory
in a computer is mapped. And addresses themselves are data that has to
be stored somewhere in the hardware for use by programs, and the
Operating System.

So as programmers, not just in C++ but in any language. How do we
instruct the CPU to to go out into Ram and acquire some data? And more
importantly, how do we instruct the CPU to take some data from a source,
and to SEND it from Ram for storage? Well, we can give the CPU the
exact memory address of our data for storage or retrieval, and in fact,
Assembly Language does nearly that. But that is really hard and
impossible to debug the syntax. Instead the CPU accommodates SYMBOLIC
VARIABLES. This is the creation of a symbol that allows us access to a
machine language memory address, and to retrieve and store data in that
location. So the CPU and our programs have these symbols, and data
associated with them that sits in RAM. Forgetting C++ for a moment,
lets make up our own language in this language we create variable
symbols.

MYVAR("This is a string of data");

In our imaginary language creates a symbol MYVAR, which is
stored in the computer for later use. Our language with the help of the
CPU then allocates some finite memory in RAM and stores the address for
that data in a very fast lookup table in association of the Symbol
"MYVAR". And then we put the string "This is a string of
data", all 23 bytes of data to my counting, in RAM starting at the
memory address starting at the memory address that is associated with
MYVAR.

Now I chose the syntax

MYVAR("This is a string of data");


I could have used any other syntax rules that I think might be useful
and understandable of programmers (and in fact, not enough thought, IMO,
is given to this function of language design) and we could have created
a syntax that looks like this:

MYVAR = "This is a string of datax":

or

MYVAR{:This is a string of data:}

or

MYVAR := "This is a string of data";

or

MYVAR<'This is a string of data'>

Let String MYVAR eq [This is a string of data]

are all possible syntax rules in our own made up programming language.
I bring this up because the fluidity of syntax rules become an import
concept in Object Oriented programming languages like
C++. But I also make this point that no matter the syntax, the
resulting affect and internal sequence of low level events needs to be
the same. A Symbol is stored. An address is associated to the symbol,
and data is stored.

Now what if we took a shortcut? Instead of creating a symbol that the
CPU associates with some data in RAM, which then stores human useful
data at that address, what if we just ignored the useful human data
that we stored and just associate the memory address with the symbol, or
alternately, store at the address associate with the symbol yet another
machine language memory address? This can give us several advantages,
creates several potential dangers and pitfalls, and even if it seems to
be driving us closer to assembly language like code, can actually simply
our coding. If we can avoid having to write real binary addressing
code, this gives us a decent level of flexibility. We can indirectly
point our symbol at any kind of data, for one thing, although limited by
the rules of C++ syntax. Certain operations, like incrementing serially
through a segment of memory can be sped up since the CPU is engineered
to handle binary memory address operations very efficiently. We can
pass access of very large segments of memory from one variable to
another, without having to copy the whole memory segment to a new
location. And remember that CODE itself is actually data and we can
gain access to that code and pass it around like chars, ints and longs.
But in order to retrieve the actually useful information that the stored
memory address points at, we need to take an extra step. First we have
to read the associated address attached to our variable. And then we
have to fetch the data at the associated location in RAM that our symbol
is associated. And since that data is itself is a machine language
memory address, and not otherwise useful data, we then need to map that
address that was stored in symbols associated RAM location, and
deference that address to reach the useful data that we ultimately want
to retrieve.

Does this seem confusing? It is and it isn't. Students to C and C++
choke on this all the time, and yet understanding this concept is
absolutely the key to understanding how to read, program, design and
analyze good C++ code. But what leads students astray is that the fact
that this is a computer specific abstraction, they over think it. A
pointer is really quite simple. It is a symbolic variable that stores a
memory address. What the heck that stored address is pointing at,
though, is where real world programming gets interesting and often
confusing. C++ and C have tools to help make this a bit easier, one of
which is that C++ is what is called a TYPED language, and has key words
to help you from screwing yourself up like CONST. And we will look at
all of this as we go forward.


One thing you will note is that I haven't actually written can C++
syntax yet. That isn't an accident. I want to teach the concepts first
before we look at the implementations. I believe that often, especially
at the beginning, trying to teach the syntax simultaneously with the
concepts is a big teaching mistake.

Next - References (I hate references).

  1. 2010-02-01 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Michael George
  2. 2010-02-01 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] sddsfs
  3. 2010-02-01 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] The end of the future
  4. 2010-02-01 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] The end of the future
  5. 2010-02-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop - Introduction
  6. 2010-02-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop I datatypes cont..
  7. 2010-02-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop - Introduction
  8. 2010-02-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop I datatypes cont..
  9. 2010-02-02 From: "Beau Gould" <bg-at-capitalmarketsp.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [JOB] Operations Manager, NYC | 120k+
  10. 2010-02-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [JOB] Operations Manager, NYC | 120k+
  11. 2010-02-02 From: "Beau Gould" <bg-at-capitalmarketsp.com> RE: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [JOB] Operations Manager, NYC | 120k+
  12. 2010-02-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop I datatypes cont..
  13. 2010-02-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop I datatypes cont..
  14. 2010-02-02 From: "Stan Davenport" <stan-at-etrtechcenter.com> RE: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [JOB] Operations Manager, NYC | 120k+
  15. 2010-02-03 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop I datatypes cont..
  16. 2010-02-05 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Tech Nite
  17. 2010-02-05 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop I datatypes cont..
  18. 2010-02-05 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop I datatypes cont..
  19. 2010-02-05 Michael L Richardson <mlr52-at-michaellrichardson.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruben
  20. 2010-02-05 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruben
  21. 2010-02-05 Paul Charles Leddy <pcleddy-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] The new mail server
  22. 2010-02-06 Kevin Mark <kevin.mark-at-verizon.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruben
  23. 2010-02-06 Michael L Richardson <mlr52-at-michaellrichardson.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruben
  24. 2010-02-06 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Worlds most secure Operating System
  25. 2010-02-06 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] They are OUT OF PRINT stupid..
  26. 2010-02-07 Kevin Mark <kevin.mark-at-verizon.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruben
  27. 2010-02-07 Kevin Mark <kevin.mark-at-verizon.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruben
  28. 2010-02-07 Michael L Richardson <mlr52-at-michaellrichardson.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruben
  29. 2010-02-07 Paul Robert Marino <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruben
  30. 2010-02-07 Michael L Richardson <mlr52-at-michaellrichardson.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruben
  31. 2010-02-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Copyright Criminals on PBS
  32. 2010-02-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop _ Syntax Basics
  33. 2010-02-09 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Copyright Wars in Europe
  34. 2010-02-09 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Copyright Wars in Europe Part II
  35. 2010-02-09 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Security Alert
  36. 2010-02-09 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C Code for Android
  37. 2010-02-09 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop _ Syntax Basics
  38. 2010-02-10 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop _ Syntax Basics
  39. 2010-02-11 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Tech Night This Week
  40. 2010-02-11 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Downtown Brooklyn Tech Center
  41. 2010-02-12 Paul Charles Leddy <pcleddy-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruben
  42. 2010-02-12 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Tech Night This Week
  43. 2010-02-12 From: "Beau Gould" <bg-at-capitalmarketsp.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [JOB] LAMP Developer, NYC | 90-100k
  44. 2010-02-12 From: "Beau Gould" <bg-at-capitalmarketsp.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Hi Ruben
  45. 2010-02-12 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Hi Ruben
  46. 2010-02-12 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Hi Ruben
  47. 2010-02-12 From: "Beau Gould" <bg-at-capitalmarketsp.com> RE: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Hi Ruben
  48. 2010-02-12 From: "Beau Gould" <bg-at-capitalmarketsp.com> RE: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Hi Ruben
  49. 2010-02-12 Kevin Mark <kevin.mark-at-verizon.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Downtown Brooklyn Tech Center
  50. 2010-02-13 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop - side discussing on C++ variable declarations
  51. 2010-02-13 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop - side discussing on C++ variable declarations
  52. 2010-02-13 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop - side discussing on C++ variable declarations
  53. 2010-02-13 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop - side discussing on C++ variable declarations
  54. 2010-02-13 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop - side discussing on C++ variable declarations
  55. 2010-02-13 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop - side discussing on C++ variable declarations
  56. 2010-02-13 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop - side discussing on C++ variable declarations
  57. 2010-02-13 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop - side discussing on C++ variable declarations
  58. 2010-02-13 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Downtown Brooklyn Tech Center
  59. 2010-02-13 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Downtown Brooklyn Tech Center
  60. 2010-02-14 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop _ Syntax Basics
  61. 2010-02-15 From: "Beau Gould" <bg-at-capitalmarketsp.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] A good friend of mine is looking for a job
  62. 2010-02-15 Ron <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] NYLUG Workshop / Hacking Society, (Smalltalk, C++, Python) TOMORROW February 16 6:00PM-8:00PM
  63. 2010-02-15 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] NYLUG Workshop / Hacking Society, (Smalltalk,
  64. 2010-02-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop _ Syntax Basics
  65. 2010-02-16 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [Fwd: [nylug-announce] NYLUG Presents: 2/17 -at- 6:30PM Luke Kanies
  66. 2010-02-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: Passing Tradition in the digital age
  67. 2010-02-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: Senior Linux Engineer - Job Opportunity for NYLXS
  68. 2010-02-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Catching up to me
  69. 2010-02-16 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] NYLUG Workshop / Hacking Society, (Smalltalk, C++, Python) TODAY February 16 6:00PM-8:00PM
  70. 2010-02-16 From: "Beau Gould" <bg-at-capitalmarketsp.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [JOB] 30 C++/Unix Programmers, NYC | to 200k or to $700/day
  71. 2010-02-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: [Linux.com.users] Ultimate Linux Guru Update
  72. 2010-02-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [JOB] 30 C++/Unix Programmers, NYC | to 200k
  73. 2010-02-16 From: "Beau Gould" <bg-at-capitalmarketsp.com> RE: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [JOB] 30 C++/Unix Programmers, NYC | to 200kor to $700/day
  74. 2010-02-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [JOB] 30 C++/Unix Programmers, NYC | to
  75. 2010-02-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Amy
  76. 2010-02-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Amy
  77. 2010-02-17 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Technight - Sunday at 6:00PM till --- when ever
  78. 2010-02-17 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Streaming LIVE: Luke Kanies on The Future of Puppet
  79. 2010-02-18 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: TM Insider: HAIR: The Best Musical of 2009 for just $55
  80. 2010-02-19 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Technight - Hacking and Ice Cast - this Sunday Evening
  81. 2010-02-19 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop _ Syntax Basics
  82. 2010-02-19 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C Programming and Modern Approach question
  83. 2010-02-19 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] (live streaming) Free Software Round Table Saturday 2/20 at 10 PM
  84. 2010-02-19 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Technight - Hacking and Ice Cast - this Sunday Evening
  85. 2010-02-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] MS/Open SOurce Dejavu all over again
  86. 2010-02-20 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] (live streaming) Free Software Round TableSaturday in ONE HOUR (10
  87. 2010-02-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] (live streaming) Free Software Round
  88. 2010-02-20 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] (live streaming) Free Software Round TableSaturday
  89. 2010-02-22 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: [knking-at-gsu.edu: Re: C Programming and Modern
  90. 2010-02-22 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] IceCast Server
  91. 2010-02-23 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] DSL Router Virus
  92. 2010-02-24 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  93. 2010-02-24 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  94. 2010-02-24 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  95. 2010-02-24 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] The Only significant Issue in the Healthcare bill
  96. 2010-02-24 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] The Only significant Issue in the Healthcare
  97. 2010-02-24 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  98. 2010-02-24 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  99. 2010-02-25 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  100. 2010-02-25 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  101. 2010-02-25 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  102. 2010-02-25 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  103. 2010-02-25 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  104. 2010-02-26 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [FSF] Day Against DRM: May 4
  105. 2010-02-26 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] this should not get through
  106. 2010-02-28 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C++ Workshop _ Syntax Basics - Aggregate Data Types

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