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DATE 2014-09-01

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MESSAGE
DATE 2014-09-23
FROM Ruben Safir
SUBJECT Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] more systemd tutorials

https://www.linux.com/learn/tutorials/788613-understanding-and-using-systemd

Understanding and Using Systemd
Thursday, 18 September 2014 15:36 Carla Schroder |Exclusive
Submit to Linkedin Submit to Stumbleupon

Systemd components graphic

Image courtesy Wikimedia Commons, CC BY-SA 3.0

Like it or not, systemd is here to stay, so we might as well know what
to do with it.

systemd is controversial for several reasons: It's a replacement for
something that a lot of Linux users don't think needs to be replaced,
and the antics of the systemd developers have not won hearts and minds.
But rather the opposite, as evidenced in this famous LKML thread where
Linus Torvalds banned systemd dev Kay Sievers from the Linux kernel.

It's tempting to let personalities get in the way. As fun as it is to
rant and rail and emit colorful epithets, it's beside the point. For lo
so many years Linux was content with SysVInit and BSD init. Then came
add-on service managers like the service and chkconfig commands. Which
were supposed to make service management easier, but for me were just
more things to learn that didn't make the tasks any easier, but rather
more cluttery.

Then came Upstart and systemd, with all kinds of convoluted addons to
maintain SysVInit compatibility. Which is a nice thing to do, but good
luck understanding it. Now Upstart is being retired in favor of systemd,
probably in Ubuntu 14.10, and you'll find a ton of systemd libs and
tools in 14.04. Just for giggles, look at the list of files in the
systemd-services package in Ubuntu 14.04:

$ dpkg -L systemd-services

Check out the man pages to see what all of this stuff does.

It's always scary when developers start monkeying around with key Linux
subsystems, because we're pretty much stuck with whatever they foist on
us. If we don't like a particular software application, or desktop
environment, or command there are multiple alternatives and it is easy
to use something else. But essential subsystems have deep hooks in the
kernel, all manner of management scripts, and software package
dependencies, so replacing one is not a trivial task.

So the moral is things change, computers are inevitably getting more
complex, and it all works out in the end. Or not, but absent the ability
to shape events to our own liking we have to deal with it.
First systemd Steps

Red Hat is the inventor and primary booster of systemd, so the best
distros for playing with it are Red Hat Enterprise Linux, RHEL clones
like CentOS and Scientific Linux, and of course good ole Fedora Linux,
which always ships with the latest, greatest, and bleeding-edgiest. My
examples are from CentOS 7.

Experienced RH users can still use service and chkconfig in RH 7, but
it's long past time to dump them in favor of native systemd utilities.
systemd has outpaced them, and service and chkconfig do not support
native systemd services.

Our beloved /etc/inittab is no more. Instead, we have a
/etc/systemd/system/ directory chock-full of symlinks to files in
/usr/lib/systemd/system/. /usr/lib/systemd/system/ contains init
scripts; to start a service at boot it must be linked to
/etc/systemd/system/. The systemctl command does this for you when you
enable a new service, like this example for ClamAV:

# systemctl enable clamd-at-scan.service
ln -s '/usr/lib/systemd/system/clamd-at-scan.service'
'/etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/clamd-at-scan.service'

How do you know the name of the init script, and where does it come
from? On Centos7 they're broken out into separate packages. Many servers
(for example Apache) have not caught up tosystemd and do not have
systemd init scripts. ClamAV offers both systemd and SysVInit init
scripts, so you can install the one you prefer:

$ yum search clamav
clamav-server-sysvinit.noarch
clamav-server-systemd.noarch

So what's inside these init scripts? We can see for ourselves:

$ less /usr/lib/systemd/system/clamd-at-scan.service
.include /lib/systemd/system/clamd-at-.service
[Unit]
Description = Generic clamav scanner daemon
[Install]
WantedBy = multi-user.target

Now you can see how systemctl knows where to install the symlink, and
this init script also includes a dependency on another service,
clamd-at-.service.

systemctl displays the status of all installed services that have init
scripts:

$ systemctl list-unit-files --type=service
UNIT FILE STATE
[...]
chronyd.service enabled
clamd-at-.service static
clamd-at-scan.service disabled

There are three possible states for a service: enabled or disabled, and
static. Enabled means it has a symlink in a .wants directory. Disabled
means it does not. Static means the service is missing the [Install]
section in its init script, so you cannot enable or disable it. Static
services are usually dependencies of other services, and are controlled
automatically. You can see this in the ClamAV example, as clamd-at-.service
is a dependency of clamd-at-scan.service, and it runs only when
clamd-at-scan.service runs.

None of these states tell you if a service is running. The ps command
will tell you, or use systemctl to get more detailed information:

$ systemctl status bluetooth.service
bluetooth.service - Bluetooth service
Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib.systemd/system/bluetooth.service; enabled)
Active: active (running) since Thu 2014-09-14 6:40:11 PDT
Main PID: 4964 (bluetoothd)
CGroup: /system.slice/bluetooth.service
|_4964 /usr/bin/bluetoothd -n

systemctl tells you everything you want to know, if you know how to ask.
Cheatsheet

These are the commands you're probably going to use the most:

# systemctl start [name.service]
# systemctl stop [name.service]
# systemctl restart [name.service]
# systemctl reload [name.service]
$ systemctl status [name.service]
# systemctl is-active [name.service]
$ systemctl list-units --type service --all

systemd has 12 unit types. .service is system services, and when you're
running any of the above commands you can leave off the .service
extension, because systemd assumes a service unit if you don't specify
something else. The other unit types are:



Target: group of units
Automount: filesystem auto-mountpoint
Device: kernel device names, which you can see in sysfs and udev
Mount: filesystem mountpoint
Path: file or directory
Scope: external processes not started by systemd
Slice: a management unit of processes
Snapshot: systemd saved state
Socket: IPC (inter-process communication) socket
Swap: swap file
Timer: systemd timer.



It is unlikely that you'll ever need to do anything to these other
units, but it's good to know they exist and what they're for. You can
look at them:

$ systemctl list-units --type [unit name]

Blame Game

For whatever reason, it seems that the proponents of SysVInit
replacements are obsessed with boot times. My systemd systems, like
CentOS 7, don't boot up all that much faster than the others. It's not
something I particularly care about in any case, since most boot speed
measurements only measure reaching the login prompt, and not how long it
takes for the system to completely start and be usable. Microsoft
Windows has long been the champion offender in this regards, reaching a
login prompt fairly quickly, and then taking several more minutes to
load and run nagware, commercialware, spyware, and pretty much
everything except what you want. (I swear if I see one more stupid
Oracle Java updater nag screen I am going to turn violent.)

Even so, for anyone who does care about boot times you can run a command
to see how long every program and service takes to start up:

$ systemd-analyze blame
5.728s firewalld.service
5.111s plymouth-quit-wait.service
4.046s tuned.service
3.550s accounts.daemon.service
[...]

And several dozens more. Well that's all for today, folks. systemd is
already a hugely complex beast; consult the References section to learn
more.
References

Freedesktop.org systemd System and Service Manager
Here We Go Again, Another Linux Init: Intro to systemd

  1. 2014-09-01 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Math and Computer Sciences
  2. 2014-09-01 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Math and Computer Sciences
  3. 2014-09-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Linux Jobs at CBS
  4. 2014-09-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] More Linux Jobs
  5. 2014-09-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] I've looked at Clouds from both sides now...
  6. 2014-09-02 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] I've looked at Clouds from both sides now...
  7. 2014-09-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/Get_Started_With_Scribus:1
  8. 2014-09-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ruby groups
  9. 2014-09-03 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: Invitation: An Evening with Bjarne Stroustrup
  10. 2014-09-03 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: [New discussion] All presentations from YAPC::EU - Sofia, Bulgaria
  11. 2014-09-04 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] weird ruby syntax
  12. 2014-09-04 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: Re: [Israel.pm] salsa20 encryption
  13. 2014-09-04 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] mod_perl job
  14. 2014-09-04 Ruben <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: We are currently hiring for a System Administrator!
  15. 2014-09-05 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/Get_Started_With_Scribus:1
  16. 2014-09-05 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Math and Computer Sciences
  17. 2014-09-07 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Anyone want to go to Florida?
  18. 2014-09-07 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Do you have the magic answer
  19. 2014-09-07 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Oracle STILL dumb as still
  20. 2014-09-07 Paul Robert Marino <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Oracle STILL dumb as still
  21. 2014-09-07 Paul Robert Marino <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/Get_Started_With_Scribus:1
  22. 2014-09-07 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Oracle STILL dumb as still
  23. 2014-09-07 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/Get_Started_With_Scribus:1
  24. 2014-09-07 eminker-at-gmail.com Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Oracle STILL dumb as still
  25. 2014-09-07 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/Get_Started_With_Scribus:1
  26. 2014-09-07 Paul Robert Marino <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/Get_Started_With_Scribus:1
  27. 2014-09-07 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/Get_Started_With_Scribus:1
  28. 2014-09-07 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Oracle STILL dumb as still
  29. 2014-09-07 Chris Knadle <Chris.Knadle-at-coredump.us> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] http://wiki.scribus.net/canvas/Get_Started_With_Scribus:1
  30. 2014-09-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Great Lectures
  31. 2014-09-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] startup demonstration show
  32. 2014-09-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Oracle STILL dumb as still
  33. 2014-09-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: Letter of recomendation
  34. 2014-09-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [christopher.league-at-liu.edu: Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Oracle STILL dumb
  35. 2014-09-09 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] LIU Free Software
  36. 2014-09-12 From: <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Advanced linux privacy
  37. 2014-09-14 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: realloc limitations
  38. 2014-09-14 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: realloc limitations
  39. 2014-09-14 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  40. 2014-09-14 Chris Knadle <Chris.Knadle-at-coredump.us> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  41. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  42. 2014-09-15 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  43. 2014-09-15 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  44. 2014-09-15 Chris Knadle <Chris.Knadle-at-coredump.us> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  45. 2014-09-15 einker <eminker-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  46. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: lost directory indexes]
  47. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: Re: lost directory indexes]
  48. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  49. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  50. 2014-09-15 Chris Knadle <Chris.Knadle-at-coredump.us> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  51. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  52. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  53. 2014-09-15 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  54. 2014-09-15 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  55. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  56. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: Re: lost directory indexes]
  57. 2014-09-15 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  58. 2014-09-15 Chris Knadle <Chris.Knadle-at-coredump.us> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  59. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  60. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  61. 2014-09-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: AddHandle perl-script *]
  62. 2014-09-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: Re: AddHandle perl-script *]
  63. 2014-09-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  64. 2014-09-16 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: Why Life Is A Lot More Fun When We Stop Trying to Be Perfect
  65. 2014-09-16 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Medical Update 9/16; Health Scare
  66. 2014-09-17 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  67. 2014-09-17 Chris Knadle <Chris.Knadle-at-coredump.us> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  68. 2014-09-17 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  69. 2014-09-17 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Medical Update 9/16; Health Scare
  70. 2014-09-17 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  71. 2014-09-17 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Binary Calculator
  72. 2014-09-17 Chris Knadle <Chris.Knadle-at-coredump.us> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  73. 2014-09-17 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  74. 2014-09-18 Ruben <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: Re: lost directory indexes
  75. 2014-09-19 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Apache Security tips
  76. 2014-09-20 From: <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Systemd nightmare
  77. 2014-09-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: Re: realloc limitations
  78. 2014-09-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Cellular Linux Revolution
  79. 2014-09-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Cellular Linux Revolution
  80. 2014-09-22 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [wietse-at-porcupine.org: Postfix syntax overhaul, snapshot 20140921]
  81. 2014-09-23 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] jboss
  82. 2014-09-23 eminker-at-gmail.com Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] jboss
  83. 2014-09-23 eminker-at-gmail.com Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] jboss
  84. 2014-09-23 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] New Linux Lite Machines
  85. 2014-09-23 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] more systemd tutorials
  86. 2014-09-23 einker <eminker-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] New Linux Lite Machines
  87. 2014-09-23 einker <eminker-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] New Linux Lite Machines
  88. 2014-09-23 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] New Puppets?
  89. 2014-09-23 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] New Linux Lite Machines
  90. 2014-09-23 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Radio keeping you to your councel
  91. 2014-09-23 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] New Linux Lite Machines
  92. 2014-09-23 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Negitive binary representations
  93. 2014-09-24 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Happy Rosh Hashona
  94. 2014-09-24 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] core dump
  95. 2014-09-28 mrbrklyn-at-panix.com Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [wolfgang-at-rosenauer.org: Re: [opensuse] Running old version]
  96. 2014-09-29 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Fwd: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [wolfgang-at-rosenauer.org: Re: [opensuse] Running
  97. 2014-09-30 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] opensuse 13.1
  98. 2014-09-30 einker <eminker-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] opensuse 13.1

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