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MESSAGE
DATE 2008-10-01
FROM Ruben Safir
SUBJECT Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C Programming Workship: Make
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==============================================================================
C-Scene Issue #2
Multi-file projects and the GNU Make utility
Author: George Foot
Email: george.foot-at-merton.ox.ac.uk
Occupation: Student at Merton College, Oxford University, England
IRC nick: gfoot
==============================================================================

Disclaimer: The author accepts no liability whatsoever for any
damage this may cause to anything, real, abstract or
virtual, that you may or may not own. Any damage
caused is your responsibility, not mine.

Ownership: The section `Multi-file projects' remains the
property of the author, and is copyright (c) George
Foot May-July 1997. The remaining sections are the
property of CScene and are copyright (c) 1997 by
CScene, all rights reserved. Distribution of this
article, in whole or in part, is subject to the same
conditions as any other CScene article.


0) Introduction
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

This article will explain firstly why, when and how to split
your C source code between several files sensibly, and it will
then go on to show you how the GNU Make utility can handle all
your compilation and linking automatically. Users of other make
utilities may still find the information useful, but it may
require some adaptation to work on other utilities. If in doubt,
try it out, but check the manual first.


1) Multi-file projects
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

1.1 Why use them?
-----------------

Firstly, then, why are multi-file projects a good thing?
They appear to complicate things no end, requiring header
files, extern declarations, and meaning you need to search
through more files to find the function you're looking
for.

In fact, though, there are strong reasons to split up
projects. When you modify a line of your code, the
compiler has to recompile everything to create a new
executable. However, if your project is in several files
and you modify one of them, the object files for the other
source files are already on disk, so there's no point in
recompiling them. All you need to do is recompile the file
that was changed, and relink the object files. In a large
project this can mean the difference between a lengthy
(several minutes to several hours) rebuild and a ten or
twenty second adjustment.

With a little organisation, splitting a project between
files can make it much easier to find the piece of code
you are looking for. It's simple - you split the code
between the files based upon what the code does. Then if
you're looking for a routine you know exactly where to
find it.

It is much better to create a library from many object
files than from a single object file. Whether or not this
is a real advantage depends what system you're using, but
when gcc/ld links a library into a program at link time it
tries not to link in unused code. It can only exclude
entire object files from the library at a time, though, so
if you reference any symbols from a particular object file
of a library the whole object file must be linked in. If
the library is very segmented, the resulting executables
can be much smaller than they would be if the library
consisted of a single object file.

Also, since your program is very modular with the minimum
amount of sharing between files there are many other
benefits -- bugs are easier to track down, modules can
often be reused in another project, and last but not
least, other people will find it much easier to understand
what your code is doing.


1.2 When to split up your projects
----------------------------------

It is obvisouly not sensible to split up *everything*;
small programs like `Hello World' can't really be split
anyway since there's nothing to split. Splitting up small
throwaway test programs is pretty pointless too. In
general, though, I split things whenever doing so seems to
improve the layout, development and readability of the
program. This is in fact true most of the time.

The decision about what to split and how is of course
yours; I can only make general suggestions here, which you
may or may not choose to follow.

If you are developing a fairly large project, you should
think before you start how you are going to implement it,
and create several (appropriately named) files initially
to hold your code. Of course, don't hesitate to create new
files later in development, but if you do then you are
changing your mind and should perhaps think about whether
some other structural changes would be appropriate.

For medium-sized projects, you can use the above technique
of course, or you might be able to just start typing, and
split the file up later when it is getting hard to manage.
In my experience, though, it is a great deal simpler to
start off with a scheme in mind and stick to it or adapt
it as the program's needs change during development.


1.3 How to split up projects
----------------------------

Again, this is strictly my opinion; you may (probably
will?) prefer to lay things out differently. This is
touching on the controversial topic of coding style; what
I present here is simply my personal preference (along
with reasons for each of these guidelines):

i) Don't make header files which span several source
files (exception: library header files). It's much
easier to track and usually more efficient if each
header file only declares symbols from one source
file. Otherwise, changing the structure of one
source file (and its header file) may cause more
files to be rebuilt that is really necessary.

ii) Where appropriate, do use more than one header file
for a source file. It is often useful to seperate
function prototypes, type definitions, etc, from the
C source file into a header file even when they are
not publicly available. Making one header file for
public symbols and one for private symbols means
that if you change the internals of the file you can
recompile it without having to recompile other files
that use the public header file.

iii) Don't duplicate information in several header files.
If you need to, #include one in the other, but don't
write out the same header information twice. The
reason for this is that if you change the
information in the future you will only need to
change it once, rather than hunting for duplicates
which would also need modifying.

iv) Make each source file #include all the header files
which declare information in the source file. Doing
this means that the compiler is more likely to pick
out mistakes, where you have declared something
differently in the header file to what it is in the
source file.


1.4 Notes on common errors
--------------------------

a) Identifier clashes between source files: In C,
variables and functions are by default public, so that
any C source file may refer to global variables and
functions from another C source file. This is true even
if the file in question does not have a declaration or
prototype for the variable or function. You must,
therefore, ensure that the same symbol name is not used
in two different files. If you don't do this you will
get linker errors and possibly warnings during
compilation.

One way of doing this is to prefix public symbols with
some string which depends on the source file they appear
in. For example, all the routines in gfx.c might begin
with the prefix `gfx_'. If you are careful with the way
you split up your program, use sensible function names,
and don't go overboard with global variables, this
shouldn't be a problem anyway.

To prevent a symbol from being visible from outside the
source file it is defined in, prefix its definition
with the keyword `static'. This is useful for small
functions which are used internally by a file, and
won't be needed by any other file.

b) Multiply defined symbols (again): A header file is
literally substituted into your C code in place of the
#include statement. Consequently, if the header file is
#included in more than one source file all the
definitions in the header file will occur in both
source files. This causes them to be defined more than
once, which gives a linker error (see above).

Solution: don't define variables in header files. You
only want to declare them in the header file, and
define them (once only) in the appropriate C source
file, which should #include the header file of course
for type checking. The distinction between a
declaration and a definition is easy to miss for
beginners; a declaration tells the compiler that the
named symbol should exist and should have the specified
type, but it does not cause the compiler to allocate
storage space for it, while a definition does allocate
the space. To make a declaration rather than a
definition, put the keyword `extern' before the
definition.

So, if we have an integer called `counter' which we
want to be publicly available, we would define it in a
source file (one only) as `int counter;' at top level,
and declare it in a header file as `extern int
counter;'.

Function prototypes are implicitly extern, so they do
not create this problem.

c) Redefinitions, redeclarations, conflicting types:
Consider what happens if a C source file #includes both
a.h and b.h, and also a.h #includes b.h (which is
perfectly sensible; b.h might define some types that
a.h needs). Now, the C source file #includes b.h twice.
So every #define in b.h occurs twice, every declaration
occurs twice (not actually a problem), every typedef
occurs twice, etc. In theory, since they are exact
duplicates it shouldn't matter, but in practice it is
not valid C and you will probably get compiler errors
or at least warnings.

The solution to this problem is to ensure that the body
of each header file is included only once per source
file. This is generally achieved using preprocessor
directives. We will #define a macro for each header
file, as we enter the header file, and only use the
body of the file if the macro is not already defined.
In practice it is as simple as putting this at the
start of each header file:

#ifndef FILENAME_H
#define FILENAME_H

and then putting this at the end of it:

#endif

replacing FILENAME_H with the (capitalised) filename of
the header file, using an underline instead of a dot.
Some people like to put a comment after the #endif to
remind them what it is referring to, e.g.

#endif /* #ifndef FILENAME_H */

Personally I don't do that since it's usually pretty
obvious, but it is a matter of style.

You only need to do this trick to header files that
generate the compiler errors, but it doesn't hurt to do
it to all header files.


1.5 Rebuilding a multi-file project
-----------------------------------

It is important to recognise the distinction here between
compiling and linking. A compiler takes C source code and
generates some form of object code from that source code,
without resolving external references. A linker is then
invoked, which takes object file(s) and links them
together into an executable file, along with standard
libraries and other libraries you may specify. At this
stage references in one object file to symbols in another
are resolved, and depending on the linker unresolved
references may be reported, usually as errors.

The basic procedure, then, is to compile your C source
files one by one to object format, and finally link all
the object files together, along with any libraries you
need. How exactly you do this will depend on your
compiler; here I shall describe the commands for gcc,
which may also work on your compiler even if it is not
gcc.

Note that gcc is a multi-purpose tool which calls other
components (preprocessor, compiler, assembler, linker) as
required; which of these are called depends upon what the
input files are and what switches you give it.

Normally if you pass C source files alone it will
preprocess, compile and assemble them one by one, then
link to an executable file (usually called a.out) from the
resulting objectfiles. This would work in our case, but
would destroy many of the benefits of splitting the
project up in the first place.

If you pass the -c switch, gcc will compile the listed
files to object format only, naming the object files after
the C source files, replacing the `.c' or `.cc' suffix
with `.o'. If you pass a list of object files, gcc will
simply link them to form an executable, again called a.out
by default. You can change the name of the output file
from either of these by passing the -o switch followed by
a filename.

So, after altering a source file you need to recompile it
by calling `gcc -c filename.c' and then relink the project
by calling `gcc -o exec_filename *.o'. If you alter a
header file, you need to recompile all those source files
which #include it; you could type `gcc -c file1.c file2.c
file3.c' and then relink, for example.

This is, of course, fairly tedious; luckily there are
tools available to simplify this process. The second half
of this article describes such a tool: the GNU Make
utility.


2) The GNU Make utility
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

2.1 Basic makefile structure
----------------------------

GNU Make's main action is to read through a text file (a
makefile) containing (principly) information about which
files (`targets') are created from which other files
(`dependencies') and what commands should be executed to
do this. Armed with this information, make will then look
at the files on disk and, if the timestamp on a target is
older than that on at least one of its dependencies, make
will issue the commands specified in the hope of bringing
the target file up to date.

The makefile is normally called (funnily enough)
`makefile' or `Makefile', but you can specify other
filenames on make's command line. If you don't, it will
look for `makefile' or `Makefile' so it's simplest just to
use those names.

A makefile consists (mainly) of a sequence of rules of
this form:

: ...
(tab)
(tab)
.
.
.

For example, consider the following makefile:

=== start of makefile ===
myprog : foo.o bar.o
gcc foo.o bar.o -o myprog

foo.o : foo.c foo.h bar.h
gcc -c foo.c -o foo.o

bar.o : bar.c bar.h
gcc -c bar.c -o bar.o
=== end of makefile ===

This is a very basic makefile - make starts at the top,
and uses the first target, `myprog', as its primary goal
(the thing it is ultimately trying to keep up-to-date).
The rule tells it that whenever the file `myprog' is older
than either `foo.o' or `bar.o', the command on the next
line should be executed.

However, before checking the timestamps of foo.o and bar.o
it first looks through the makefile for rules with foo.o
or bar.o as targets. It finds the rule for foo.o, seeing
that it depends on foo.c, foo.h and bar.h. It cannot find
additional rules saying how to create any of these files,
so it then checks the timestamps on disk. If any of these
files are newer than foo.o, the command `gcc -o foo.o
foo.c' will be executed, bringing foo.o up to date.

The same check is then made for bar.o, depending upon
bar.c and bar.h.

Now make returns to the rule for `myprog'. If either of
the other two rules were executed, myprog will need
rebuilding (one of the .o files will be newer than
`myprog') and so the linking command will be executed.

Hopefully at this stage you can see the benefit of using
the make utility to build your programs - all the tedious
checking mentioned at the end of the previous chapter is
done for you by make, checking the timestamps. A simple
change to one of your source files will cause that file to
be recompiled (since the .o file depends on the .c file)
and then the executable will be relinked (since the .o
file has now been modified). The real gain, though, shows
if you modify a header file - you no longer need to
remember which of your source files depended on it, since
the information is all there in the makefile. The make
utility will happily recompile any files which are listed
as depending on any modified header files, and relink if
required.

Of course, this depends on you making sure the rules in
the makefile are correct, listing only those header files
which are #included in the source file...


2.2 Writing make rules
----------------------

The obvious (and simplest) way to write your rules is by
looking at each source file in turn, adding its object
file as a target, and the C source file as a dependency
along with all the headers it #includes. However, you
should also list as dependencies any other headers which
are #included by those headers, and any headers they
#include, and so on... it gets difficult to track. So is
there an easier way?

Of course there is - ask the compiler! It ought to know
what headers it would include when compiling each source
file. With gcc you can specify the -M switch, and then gcc
will send to stdout a rule for each C file you pass, with
the object file as a target and the C file and all headers
#included therein as dependencies. Note that this rule
will include both headers named between angle brackets
(`<', `>') and headers named in inverted commas (`"'); it
is often a pretty safe bet that the system header files
(like stdio.h, stdlib.h, etc) aren't going to change
though. If you pass -MM instead of -M to gcc, it will omit
any header files whose names were enclosed with angle
brackets.

The rule output by gcc won't have a command part; you can
either write in your own command, or just leave it and let
make use its implicit rule (see section 2.4).


2.3 Makefile variables
----------------------

I wrote earlier that makefiles contain mainly rules.
Another thing they can contain are variable definitions.

A variable in a makefile is somewhat like an environment
variable; indeed, environment variables are translated
into make variables during the make process. They are case
sensitive, and normally specified in upper case. They can
be referenced almost anywhere, and so they can be used for
many purposes, for example:

i) Holding lists of files. In the makefile above, the
rule to make the executable contains the object
filenames as dependencies, and the same filenames
are passed to gcc in the command for that rule. If a
variable were used in both cases, adding new object
files would be simpler and less prone to error.

ii) Holding executable filenames. If your project is
taken to a non-gcc system, or if you just want to
use a different compiler, you would have to change
all calls to the compiler to use the new name. Using
a variable instead means that you need only change
the name in one place, and all the commands would be
updated.

iii) Holding compiler flags. Presumably you want all your
compilation commands to pass the same set of options
(e.g. -Wall -O -g); if you put the option list in a
variable then you can put the variable in all your
compiler calls and just change the options in one
place whenever you need to.

To set a variable, you simply write its name at the start
of a line, followed by an = sign, and then its new value.
To reference a variable later on you write a dollar sign,
then the variable name in brackets. For example, here is
the previous makefile rewritten using variables:

=== start of makefile ===
OBJS = foo.o bar.o
CC = gcc
CFLAGS = -Wall -O -g

myprog : $(OBJS)
$(CC) $(OBJS) -o myprog

foo.o : foo.c foo.h bar.h
$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c foo.c -o foo.o

bar.o : bar.c bar.h
$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c bar.c -o bar.o
=== end of makefile ===

There are also various automatic variables, which are
defined for each rule. Three useful ones are $-at-, $< and $^
(no brackets are needed for these). $-at- expands to the
filename of the target of the rule, $< expands to the
first dependency in the dependency list, and $^ expands to
the entire dependency list (with duplicate filenames
removed). Using these, then, we could write the above
makefile as:

=== start of makefile ===
OBJS = foo.o bar.o
CC = gcc
CFLAGS = -Wall -O -g

myprog : $(OBJS)
$(CC) $^ -o $-at-

foo.o : foo.c foo.h bar.h
$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c $< -o $-at-

bar.o : bar.c bar.h
$(CC) $(CFLAGS) -c $< -o $-at-
=== end of makefile ===

There are many other things you can do with variables,
especially when you mix them with functions. For further
information, see the GNU Make manual.


2.4 Implicit rules
------------------

Note that in that last makefile example the commands to
create the .o files are identical. This is hardly
surprising since they both achieve similar goals -
creating a .o file from a .c file and some others is a
standard procedure. In fact, make already knows how to do
it - it has built in rules called implicit rules which
tell it what to do if you don't put any commands in a
rule.

If we remove the commands from the rules for creating
foo.o and bar.o, make will fall back on its implicit rule
database and should find a suitable command. Its command
uses several variables, so you can easily customise it to
your tastes; it uses the variable CC to run a compiler
(just like we did earlier), passing it the CFLAGS variable
for C programs (CXXFLAGS for C++ programs), CPPFLAGS (C
preprocessor flags), TARGET_ARCH (don't worry about this),
then it puts the flag `-c' followed by the variable $<
(first dependency), then the flag `-o' followed by the
variable $-at- (the target file). The effective command for C
compilation is:

$(CC) $(CFLAGS) $(CPPFLAGS) $(TARGET_ARCH) -c $< -o $-at-

You can define these variables however you like, of
course. This should explain why the output from gcc with
the -M or -MM switch is suitable for immediate inclusion
in a makefile.


2.5 Phony targets
-----------------

Suppose you had a project in which two executable files
needed to be created. You would want the primary goal to
create both files, but independently of each other - if
one needs rebuilding, the other may not. To achieve this
you can use what is called a phony target. A phony target
is just like a normal target, but it is not an actual file
on disk. Because of this, make assumes that it needs
creating, and always executes any commands in its rule,
after bringing its dependencies up to date.

So, if we write at the top of our makefile:

all : exec1 exec2

where exec1 and exec2 are the filenames of our two target
executables, make will set this as its primary goal and
try to bring `all' up to date on every invocation. Since
there are no commands here which will affect a file called
`all' on disk, this rule won't actually change the status
of `all' at all. However, since the file does not exist
make will check that exec1 and exec2 don't need
rebuilding, and rebuild them if they are out of date,
which is exactly what we wanted to do.

Phony targets can also be used to describe a set of non-
default actions. For example, you might want to remove all
the files generated by make. To do this, you could make a
rule in the makefile like this:

veryclean :
rm *.o
rm myprog

Provided no rules are listed as depending upon the target
`veryclean', this will never be executed. However, if the
user types `make veryclean' explicitly, make will use this
as its primary goal, and run the rm commands.

What if there is a file on disk called veryclean though?
In this case, since this rule has no dependencies, the
target `veryclean' must be up to date, and even if the
user explicitly asks make to recreate it nothing will
happen. The solution here is to declare all your phony
targets as .PHONY, telling make not to bother looking for
them on disk, not to bother checking implicit rules, and
to always assume that the specified target is not up to
date. Adding this line to the makefile containing the
above rule:

.PHONY : veryclean

would do the trick. Note that this is a special make rule,
that make knows .PHONY is a special target, and of course
you can put more dependencies in if you like and make will
know that they are all phony targets.


2.6 Functions
-------------

Functions in makefiles are very similar to variables - to
use them, you write a dollar sign, an open bracket, and
then the name followed by a space and a comma-separated
list of arguments, and lastly a closing bracket. For
example, there is a function called `wildcard' in GNU Make
which takes one argument and expands into a space-
separated list of all files matching the specification
given. To use it you could write something like

SOURCES = $(wildcard *.c)

which would create a list of all files ending in `.c' and
put it in the SOURCES variable. Of course, you don't have
to store the results in variables.

Another useful function is the patsubst function. It takes
three parameters - the first is a pattern to match, the
second shows what to replace it with, and the third is a
space-separated list of words to process. For example,
after the variable definition above,

OBJS = $(patsubst %.c,%.o,$(SOURCES))

would take all the words (filenames) in the SOURCES list
and for each, if it ends in `.c', it will replace the `.c'
with a `.o'. Note that the % symbol matches one or more
characters, and the string it matches each time is called
the stem. In the second parameter, the % is read as
whatever stem it matched in the first parameter.


2.7 A pretty effective makefile
-------------------------------

With the information so far we can write quite an
effective makefile, which will be able to do most of our
dependency checking for us, and will fit most projects
without much modification.

Firstly we need a basic makefile which will build the
program. We can make it search the current directory for
source files, and assume that they are all part of the
project, by using a variable SOURCES as above. It is
probably wise to also include *.cc, in case the
compilation is for C++.

SOURCES = $(wildcard *.c *.cc)

Using patsubst we can then create a list of object files
which will be created; if our sources list contains .cc
files as well as .c files we'll need to nest calls to
patsubst like so:

OBJS = $(patsubst %.c,%.o,$(patsubst %.cc,%.o,$(SOURCES)))

The innermost patsubst call will replace the .cc files'
suffixes only, forming a list which the outermost patsubst
processes, replacing the .c files' suffixes.

Now we can form a rule to build the executable:

myprog : $(OBJS)
gcc -o myprog $(OBJS)

Further rules may not be necessary; gcc knows already how
to create the object files. Next, we can make a rule to
create the dependency information:

depends : $(SOURCES)
gcc -M $(SOURCES) > depends

This creates a file called `depends' whenever it does not
exist or a source file is newer than the existing
depends' file, which contains the rules gcc created for
the source files. Now we need to get make to consider
these rules as part of the makefile. The technique here is
rather like the #include system in C - we simply ask make
to include this file in the makefile, like so:

include depends

GNU Make will see this, and check that `depends' is up to
date; if it is not, it will recreate it, following the
rule we gave. This done, it will include the (new) set of
rules and proceed to process the primary goal, `myprog'.
On seeing the rule for myprog, it will check all the
object files are up to date - using the rules from the
`depends' file, which we know is up to date itself.

This system is fairly inefficient, however, since whenever
a source file is changed all the source files must be
preprocessed again to create the `depends' file, and it
isn't 100% safe either since changing a header file will
not cause the dependency information to be updated.
However, it is quite useful as it stands.


2.8 A more effective makefile
-----------------------------

This is a makefile I use for most things I do. It should
build most projects without modification. I have used it
mainly with djgpp, a DOS port of gcc, so the executable
name, `alleg' library, and the RM-F variable reflect this.

=== start of makefile ===

######################################
# #
# Generic makefile #
# #
# by George Foot #
# email: george.foot-at-merton.ox.ac.uk #
# #
# Copyright (c) 1997 George Foot #
# All rights reserved. #
# #
# No warranty, no liability; #
# you use this at your own risk. #
# #
# You are free to modify and #
# distribute this without giving #
# credit to the original author. #
# #
######################################

### Customising
#
# Adjust the following if necessary; EXECUTABLE is the target
# executable's filename, and LIBS is a list of libraries to link in
# (e.g. alleg, stdcx, iostr, etc). You can override these on make's
# command line of course, if you prefer to do it that way.

EXECUTABLE := mushroom.exe
LIBS := alleg

# Now alter any implicit rules' variables if you like, e.g.:

CFLAGS := -g -Wall -O3 -m486
CXXFLAGS := $(CFLAGS)

# The next bit checks to see whether rm is in your djgpp bin
# directory; if not it uses del instead, but this can cause (harmless)
# `File not found' error messages. If you are not using DOS at all,
# set the variable to something which will unquestioningly remove
# files.

ifneq ($(wildcard $(DJDIR)/bin/rm.exe),)
RM-F := rm -f
else
RM-F := del
endif

# You shouldn't need to change anything below this point.

SOURCE := $(wildcard *.c) $(wildcard *.cc)
OBJS := $(patsubst %.c,%.o,$(patsubst %.cc,%.o,$(SOURCE)))
DEPS := $(patsubst %.o,%.d,$(OBJS))
MISSING_DEPS := $(filter-out $(wildcard $(DEPS)),$(DEPS))
MISSING_DEPS_SOURCES := $(wildcard $(patsubst %.d,%.c,$(MISSING_DEPS)) \
$(patsubst %.d,%.cc,$(MISSING_DEPS)))
CPPFLAGS += -MD

.PHONY : everything deps objs clean veryclean rebuild

everything : $(EXECUTABLE)

deps : $(DEPS)

objs : $(OBJS)

clean :
-at-$(RM-F) *.o
-at-$(RM-F) *.d

veryclean: clean
-at-$(RM-F) $(EXECUTABLE)

rebuild: veryclean everything

ifneq ($(MISSING_DEPS),)
$(MISSING_DEPS) :
-at-$(RM-F) $(patsubst %.d,%.o,$-at-)
endif

-include $(DEPS)

$(EXECUTABLE) : $(OBJS)
gcc -o $(EXECUTABLE) $(OBJS) $(addprefix -l,$(LIBS))

=== end of makefile ===

A few things are worth explaining about this. Firstly, I
have defined most of my variables using := instead of =.
The effect of this is to immediately expand all function
and variable references in the definition. With =, the
function and variable references are left alone, meaning
that changing the value of a variable can change other
variables' values. For example:

A = foo
B = $(A)
# Now B is $(A) which is `foo'.
A = bar
# Now B is still $(A), but it is now `bar'.
B := $(A)
# B is now `bar'.
A = foo
# B is still `bar'.

After a # symbol make ignores any text until the end of
the line.

The ifneq...else...endif system is a way of conditionally
disabling/enabling parts of a makefile. ifeq takes two
parameters. If they are equal, it includes the portion of
the makefile up to the else (or endif, if there is no
else); if not, it includes the portion between else and
endif if the else is present. ifneq is exactly the
opposite.

The filter-out function takes two space-separated lists,
and expands to the second list with all members of the
first list removed. I have used it here to take the DEPS
list and remove all members which exist, leaving behind
any which are missing.

The CPPFLAGS as I mentioned earlier contains flags to pass
to the preprocessor in implicit rules. The -MD switch is
like -M, but the information is sent to a file whose name
is formed by removing the .c or .cc from the source file
and replacing it with a .d (which explains why I form the
DEPS variable that way). The files mentioned in DEPS are
included in the makefile later on using `-include', which
suppresses any errors if the files are not found on disk.

If any dependency files are missing, the makefile will
remove the corresponding .o file from disk as well,
causing make to rebuild it. Since CPPFLAGS specifies -MD,
the .d file will be recreated too.

Lastly, the addprefix function expands to the list given
in its second parameter, with its first parameter
prepended to each word of the list.

The targets of this makefile (which can be passed on the
command line to select them) are:

everything (default): Update the main executable, also
creating or updating a `.d' file and a `.o' file for
each source file.

deps: Just create/update a `.d' file for each source
file.

objs: Create/update the `.d' files and the object files
for each source file.

clean: Delete all the intermediate/dependency files
(*.d and *.o).

veryclean: Do `clean' and also delete the executable.

rebuild: Do `veryclean' and `everything'; i.e. rebuild
from scratch

Of these, clean, veryclean and rebuild are the only really
useful ones apart from the default of everything.

I am not aware of any way in which this makefile can fail,
given a directory of source files, unless the dependency
files have been mangled. If this does occur, simply typing
`make clean' should fix the problem by removing all the
dependency and object files. It's best not to mess around
with them, of course. If you see a way this makefile could
fail to do its job, please do let me know so that I can
fix it.


3 In conclusion
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

I hope this article has explained clearly enough how multi-
file projects work, and has shown how to use them in a way
which is logical and safe. You should be able to use the GNU
Make utility well enough now to manage small projects, and if
you understood what was written in the later sections you
should not have any trouble with it.

GNU Make is a powerful tool, and although it was designed
primarily for building programs in this way it has many other
uses. For more information on the utility, its syntax,
functions, and other features, you should (as with any GNU
tool) consult the info pages about it.



C Scene Official Web Site : http://cscene.oftheinter.net
C Scene Official Email : cscene-at-mindless.com This page is Copyright ©
1997 By C Scene. All Rights Reserved

--
http://www.mrbrklyn.com - Interesting Stuff
http://www.nylxs.com - Leadership Development in Free Software

So many immigrant groups have swept through our town that Brooklyn, like Atlantis, reaches mythological proportions in the mind of the world - RI Safir 1998

http://fairuse.nylxs.com DRM is THEFT - We are the STAKEHOLDERS - RI Safir 2002

"Yeah - I write Free Software...so SUE ME"

"The tremendous problem we face is that we are becoming sharecroppers to our own cultural heritage -- we need the ability to participate in our own society."

"> I'm an engineer. I choose the best tool for the job, politics be damned.<
You must be a stupid engineer then, because politcs and technology have been attached at the hip since the 1st dynasty in Ancient Egypt. I guess you missed that one."

© Copyright for the Digital Millennium

  1. 2008-10-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] new hacking attempts
  2. 2008-10-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] NYLXS Radio Show
  3. 2008-10-01 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] new hacking attempts
  4. 2008-10-01 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] new hacking attempts
  5. 2008-10-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] C Programming Workship: Make
  6. 2008-10-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Autoconf
  7. 2008-10-01 Ruben <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] autoconf
  8. 2008-10-02 email <ray-pub-at-rcn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] wget & mirrors
  9. 2008-10-02 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Is this not the funniest documentation you ever read?
  10. 2008-10-02 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] wget & mirrors
  11. 2008-10-02 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] autoconf and gtkmm
  12. 2008-10-02 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] NYLXS Radio Show
  13. 2008-10-02 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] new hacking attempts
  14. 2008-10-02 Ruben <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: autoconf
  15. 2008-10-02 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] NYLXS Radio Show
  16. 2008-10-02 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: autoconf
  17. 2008-10-02 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [danielko.listas-at-gmail.com: Re: gtkmm and autoconf]
  18. 2008-10-03 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] NYLXS Radio Show
  19. 2008-10-03 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] NYLXS Radio Show
  20. 2008-10-04 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] NYLXS Radio Show
  21. 2008-10-06 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Hackers Beware
  22. 2008-10-06 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: Help make history
  23. 2008-10-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Free Markets and Moral Development
  24. 2008-10-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] The World will be changed as you know it
  25. 2008-10-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Real 3d Screens are coming
  26. 2008-10-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Cost of Copyright Violation as reported is a lie?
  27. 2008-10-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [linux-elitists] One more thing on DRM...
  28. 2008-10-07 From: "Ronny Abraham" <ronny.coder-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: Help make history
  29. 2008-10-08 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: Embperl Abandoned: Next Steps?
  30. 2008-10-08 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] G C T
  31. 2008-10-08 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: Embperl Abandoned: Next Steps?
  32. 2008-10-08 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: Embperl Abandoned: Next Steps?
  33. 2008-10-08 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: Embperl Abandoned: Next Steps?
  34. 2008-10-08 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: Embperl Abandoned: Next Steps?
  35. 2008-10-09 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Toggle Button Bug
  36. 2008-10-10 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: Problems with Apache and SessionX hanging
  37. 2008-10-11 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Kevin Marks Blog
  38. 2008-10-12 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Making a Boot Flash Drive
  39. 2008-10-12 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Making a Boot Flash Drive
  40. 2008-10-12 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Making a Boot Flash Drive
  41. 2008-10-13 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest/Social Gathering
  42. 2008-10-13 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest/Social Gathering
  43. 2008-10-13 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Making a Boot Flash Drive
  44. 2008-10-13 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest/Social Gathering
  45. 2008-10-13 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest/Social Gathering
  46. 2008-10-14 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest/Social Gathering
  47. 2008-10-16 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] openSuSE 11 on a EEEPC 701
  48. 2008-10-16 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [announce-at-isoc-ny.org: [isoc-ny] NYC COUNCIL TECH COMMITTEE .NYC HEARING FRIDAY 10am]
  49. 2008-10-16 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest/Social Gathering
  50. 2008-10-16 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest/Social Gathering
  51. 2008-10-16 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest, Social Gathering Sunday un the Succot
  52. 2008-10-17 Nick Pytel <npytel-at-rattech.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest, Social Gathering Sunday un the
  53. 2008-10-17 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest, Social Gathering Sunday un the Succot
  54. 2008-10-17 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest/Social Gathering
  55. 2008-10-17 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Installfest, Social Gathering Sunday un the Succot
  56. 2008-10-22 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Getting Rid of Mail servers on my Laptop
  57. 2008-10-22 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [stan-at-etrtechcenter.com: Western Nassau County Tech Lead Lamp Developer]
  58. 2008-10-22 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Getting Rid of Mail servers on my Laptop
  59. 2008-10-22 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Getting Rid of Mail servers on my Laptop
  60. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  61. 2008-10-23 Kevin Mark <kevin.mark-at-verizon.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and
  62. 2008-10-23 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <prmarino1-at-gmail.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  63. 2008-10-23 From: "mlr52-at-michaellrichardson.com" <mlr52-at-michaellrichardson.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] RE: Mandriva OEM Program
  64. 2008-10-23 From: "Ronny Abraham" <ronny.coder-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  65. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  66. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  67. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  68. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  69. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [anton.aylward-at-rogers.com: Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop]
  70. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  71. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  72. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  73. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop]
  74. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop]
  75. 2008-10-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop]
  76. 2008-10-24 Kevin Mark <kevin.mark-at-verizon.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: Re: [opensuse] Getting
  77. 2008-10-24 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  78. 2008-10-24 Mark Simko <msimko-at-optonline.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim
  79. 2008-10-24 From: "Ronny Abraham" <ronny.coder-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  80. 2008-10-24 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [opensuse] Getting Rid of postfix and exim on my laptop
  81. 2008-10-24 Amy Coleman <acoleman-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  82. 2008-10-24 Amy Coleman <acoleman-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  83. 2008-10-24 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  84. 2008-10-25 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Ice Age NYC
  85. 2008-10-25 From: "Ronny Abraham" <ronny.coder-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  86. 2008-10-25 Amy Coleman <acoleman-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  87. 2008-10-25 Tameek <tameek-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  88. 2008-10-26 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  89. 2008-10-26 Amy Coleman <acoleman-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  90. 2008-10-26 From: "Ronny Abraham" <ronny.coder-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  91. 2008-10-26 From: "Ronny Abraham" <ronny.coder-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  92. 2008-10-26 From: "Joshua Zeidner" <jjzeidner-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  93. 2008-10-26 From: "Ronny Abraham" <ronny.coder-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  94. 2008-10-26 From: "Joshua Zeidner" <jjzeidner-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  95. 2008-10-26 From: "Ronny Abraham" <ronny.coder-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  96. 2008-10-26 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [jtg-at-intarcorp.com: Linux Education - New York Linux Scene]
  97. 2008-10-26 From: "Joshua Zeidner" <jjzeidner-at-gmail.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] GNU/Android Linux (Google) phones
  98. 2008-10-27 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Internet Hall of Fame event
  99. 2008-10-28 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [Fwd: [linux-elitists] Fwd: Need a Linux device driver.]
  100. 2008-10-28 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Google, Books, Fairuse and Copyrights
  101. 2008-10-29 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Moving MySQL
  102. 2008-10-31 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] new members
  103. 2008-10-31 Elfen Magix <elfen_magix-at-yahoo.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] new members
  104. 2008-10-31 From: "Michael L. Richardson" <mlr52-at-mycouponmagic.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] new members
  105. 2008-10-31 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [legcalendar-at-council.nyc.ny.us: City Council Calendar - Week of November 2nd]

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