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DATE 2004-12-01

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MESSAGE
DATE 2004-12-27
FROM From: "Inker, Evan"
SUBJECT Subject: [hangout] Sprucing up open source's GPL foundation
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From: "Inker, Evan"
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Sprucing up open source's GPL foundation



By Stephen Shankland

1561.html>
http://news.com.com/Sprucing+up+open+sources+GPL+foundation/2100-7344_3-5501
561.html

Story last modified Thu Dec 23 04:00:00 PST 2004

Modernization is coming to the General Public License, a legal framework
that supports a large part of the free and open-source software movements
and that has received sharp criticism from Microsoft Chairman Bill Gates.


tml&siteId=3&oId=2102-7344_3-5501561&ontId=7343&lop=nl.ex> GPL author
Richard Stallman said he's working on amendments that could deal better with
software patents; clarify how GPL software may be used in some networked
environments and on carefully controlled hardware; and lower some barriers
that today prevent the mixing of software covered by the GPL and other
licenses.

In the 13 years since the current GPL version 2 was released, the license
has moved from the fringes to the center of the computing industry. GPL
software is now common at Fortune 500 companies and endorsed by most large
computing firms. But that prominence has made some eager for an update.


News.context

What's new:
The General Public License, the legal foundation for free and open-source
software movements' collaborative philosophy, is being modernized to deal
with new realities in the software realm.

Bottom line:
Observers believe the GPL could be improved to better deal with a world that
involves patent lawsuits, locked-down hardware and publicly available Web
services--all items on the GPL agenda.


arch.y=8> More stories about the GPL and other licenses

"The GPL has become the pivot point of a multibillion-dollar industry.
Frankly, I don't think it was designed for that," said Mark Radcliffe, an
attorney with Gray Cary who has studied the GPL and other licenses
extensively.

For example, some would like to see clarifications that could help reduce
the threat that using GPL software could entangle users in patent
litigation. And the GPL could be better adapted to recent industry
initiatives such as building sophisticated Web services on the Internet and
boosting security through trusted computing methods.

Ordinarily only attorneys give much thought to the legal documents that
govern how software may be used. But the GPL is different.

The license is the agreement that helped show that cooperation can work in
an industry dominated by competition. And the most persuasive illustration
of its power is Linux, a rising threat to computing giants such as Microsoft
and Sun Microsystems.

The GPL governs the programming instructions called source code that
developers write and then convert into the binary files that computers
understand. At its heart, the GPL permits anyone to see, modify and
redistribute that source code, as long as they make changes available
publicly and license them under the GPL. That contrasts with some licenses
used in open-source projects that permit source code to be made proprietary.


Another requirement is that GPL software may be tightly integrated only with
other software that also is governed by the GPL. That provision helps to
create a growing pool of GPL software, but it's also spurred some to label
the license "viral," raising the specter that the inadvertent or
surreptitious inclusion of GPL code in a proprietary product would require
the release of all source code under the GPL. Gates in particular derided
the license as "
html?tag=nl> Pac Man-like," evoking an image of a GPL software module
gobbling its way along and forcing the release of source code it touches.

Thus far, that scenario hasn't come to pass. The GPL, though, has threatened
Microsoft in another way: It helped foster a vast, vibrant programming
community.

Microsoft is keenly watching the arrival of the new GPL, which Stallman said
likely will be labeled version 3. But the company probably won't see changes
to that core provision separating GPL and proprietary code.

"Overall it's going to be the same," the globe-trotting Stallman said in a
telephone interview from Morocco. "I don't expect anyone releasing software
under the GPL to be unhappy with the changes."

Changes aren't going to happen anytime soon, though. "We're nowhere near
ready to have anything to show people anything yet. We know what we'd like
to do, but how to do it is not clear," Stallman said. Only when he's good
and ready will he begin seeking comments on a draft.

Stallman wrote the GPL in the 1980s as part of his Gnu's Not Unix, or
ates+wades+into+open-source+debate/2100-1001_3-268667.html&ontId=7343&lop=nl
.ex> GNU, project to create a clone of the operating system unfettered by
Unix's proprietary constraints--thus the term "free software" and the Free
Software Foundation that Stallman established to promote it.

According to
&siteId=3&oId=/Gates+wades+into+open-source+debate/2100-1001_3-268667.html&o
ntId=7343&lop=nl.ex> Freshmeat, which calls itself "the Web's largest index
of Unix and cross-platform software," there are more than 19,000 GPL-covered
software projects, and the GPL governs 68 percent of projects in the
Freshmeat index.

The most prominent GPL project is Linux, the kernel of an operating system
that will underlie a
3-5492399.html?tag=nl> $35.7 billion business in 2008, according to a
forecast by market researcher IDC. Among others: the
l?tag=nl> MySQL database, the
7.html?tag=nl> netfilter/iptables protective firewall and the
html?tag=nl> Samba file-sharing software.

But programmers have other choices if they're not happy with the GPL. Other
licenses cover the
tag=nl> Mozilla project, which helped

launch the open-source movement in 1998, and the widely used
-5378375.html?tag=nl> Apache server software. And Sun Microsystems is
testing its
r/2100-7344_3-5475182.html?tag=nl> Community Development and Distribution
License, which likely will be used to govern its Solaris version of Unix.

The patent problem
Patents are one reason Sun chose the license it did. How the GPL deals with
that thorny legal area is the issue more than a dozen experts raised most
often in discussions for this story.

The patent problems boil down to two issues. First, should the license
explicitly require those who distribute GPL software to grant others
unhindered use of whatever patented technology is involved in that software?
And second, should there be some form of punishment for those who file
lawsuits alleging that GPL software infringes their patents?


These issues are under discussion for the next version of the GPL. "It may
possibly help protect our community from pirates armed with patents," said
Stallman, an outspoken critic of the overall idea of
_3-5291403.html?tag=nl> software patents.

One interpretation of the current GPL is that patent holders who distribute
GPL software "are in effect granting an implied license" to those patents,
said
ag=nl> Mark Webbink, the lead intellectual-property attorney for Linux
seller Red Hat and a person who first saw revised GPL drafts in 2000. But it
might be useful to have an explicitly expressed patent agreement, he said.
"A distributor may not want to leave that ambiguous as to what rights they
are giving."

Frank Bernstein, an attorney with Sughrue Mion, suggests Stallman look for
inspiration to Apple Computer's
l%2F2.0.txt&siteId=3&oId=/Red+Hat+adds+legal+firepower/2100-7344_3-5214428.h
tml&ontId=7343&lop=nl.ex> Apple Public Source License and the
ks%2Foss%2FCPLv1.0.htm&siteId=3&oId=/Red+Hat+adds+legal+firepower/2100-7344_
3-5214428.html&ontId=7343&lop=nl.ex> Common Public License IBM often uses.
Both grant a license to use patents covering the software, and when it comes
to organizations that sue for patent infringement, both licenses terminate
their rights to use and distribute the software.

Bernstein said addressing patents could make the GPL more palatable among
corporations--users that have become major contributors to, and customers
of, open-source software.

But some would like to see the GPL be more of a political tool tooverturn
the idea of software patents. "We need to find some way to monkey-wrench the
awful, broken software-patent oligopoly before it does more serious damage,"
said Eric Raymond, president of the
&oId=/Red+Hat+adds+legal+firepower/2100-7344_3-5214428.html&ontId=7343&lop=n
l.ex> Open Source Initiative. "If GPL (version) 3 can help do that, it would
be extremely valuable."

And Bruce Perens, an open-source advocate, would like to see damages for a
patent-infringement suit extended to prohibit use not just of the software
in question but of all programs classified as free software. "I would like
to see the next issue of the GPL include a mutual-defense clause regarding
patents, such that if you enforce a patent against any free software, your
rights to use free software terminate," Perens said.

A middle ground is possible, Linux seller Novell said in a statement.
"Intellectual-property protection and open source can work hand in hand and
are not mutually inconsistent," the company said.

Other changes
Stallman listed several other areas where modifications are under way:

* The GPL will become more compatible with some other free software licenses
that have minor conditions that currently prohibit programmers from
intermingling the GPL and non-GPL code. None of those other licenses are
very widely used, however, he said.

* An area of investigation is getting GPL software to run on devices such as
TiVo's digital video recorders, which use a specific version of Linux but
won't run modified versions. But prohibitions on modifications violates the
spirit of the GPL. "This is not what free software is supposed to be,"
Stallman said.

* The next version likely will have a mechanism for dealing with GPL
software that has been modified and that runs on publicly accessible
computers. Today, a programmer who wanted his or her GPL software to run in
this public fashion could insert a programming command that would let the
public download a version of the software if it's been modified. However,
with the current GPL, the organization running the software could simply
remove that section of the code. Stallman is considering a provision that
would prohibit its removal. "If the program has such a command already, and
you modify the program, you must keep that working," he said.

Stallman isn't the only one looking for improvements.


Martin Fink, vice president of Linux at Hewlett-Packard, has been grappling
with some thorny GPL issues. One problem he foresees--related to the TiVo
issue Stallman raises--is integration with the "
23.html?tag=nl> trusted computing" technology under development.

Trusted computing
Among other things, trusted computing is designed to permit execution only
of software that has been cryptographically signed--but that signature
process could be at odds with the goals of sharing and modification at the
heart of the GPL, Fink said.

Another specific hitch is that the GPL isn't clear about what exactly
"distribution" means, Fink said. How should GPL software be treated that's
distributed from a corporation to a subsidiary? Or from one machine to
another as the program executes? "We're dealing in a world where a program
entity is not confined to a machine. You can have bits and parts of a
program that are highly distributed," Fink said, as in the widely embraced
Web services concept.

Attorney John Ferrell of Carr & Ferrell would like to see a better
indication of the use of derivative works--software based on the original
GPL product. Is it a derivative work to include a GPL component unmodified
as part of a larger software suite?

Derivative works, copyrights and other concepts are central to the GPL but
those concepts vary by country and state. Radcliffe of Gray Cary would
prefer precise definitions that are more absolute.

GPL improvements are crucial to the open-source software realm, Fink said.
Improvements could help the license become more popular and better
understood, which in turn would mean a larger body of GPL software that
could be shared among projects.

"I'm trying to stop people from creating new licenses," Fink said. "To the
extent we can create a license that has a broader buy-in, that stops
proliferation of more licenses, that to me is goodness."


Copyright
(c)1995-2004 CNET Networks, Inc. All rights reserved.



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------_=_NextPart_001_01C4EC26.B443A160
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable




Message




Sprucing up open source's GPL foundation=20


By Stephen Shankland
href=3D"http://news.com.com/Sprucing+up+open+sources+GPL+foundation/2100-73=
44_3-5501561.html">color=3D#b23e3e>http://news.com.com/Sprucing+up+open+sources+GPL+foundation=
/2100-7344_3-5501561.html=20


Story last modified Thu Dec 23 04:00:00 PST 2004=20


Modernization is coming to the General Public License, a legal=
framework that supports a large part of the free and open-source software=
movements and that has received sharp criticism from Microsoft Chairman Bi=
ll=20
Gates.


href=3D"http://dw.com.com/redir?destUrl=3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.gnu.org%2Fcopyle=
ft%2Fgpl.html&siteId=3D3&oId=3D2102-7344_3-5501561&ontId=3D7343=
&lop=3Dnl.ex">color=3D#b23e3e>GPL author Richard Stallman said he's working on=
amendments that could deal better with software patents; clarify how GPL=
software may be used in some networked environments and on carefully contr=
olled=20
hardware; and lower some barriers that today prevent the mixing of software=
covered by the GPL and other licenses.


In the 13 years since the current GPL version 2 was released, the licens=
e has=20
moved from the fringes to the center of the computing industry. GPL softwar=
e is=20
now common at Fortune 500 companies and endorsed by most large computing fi=
rms.=20
But that prominence has made some eager for an update.




News.context

What's new:
The General Pu=
blic=20
License, the legal foundation for free and open-source software movements'=
collaborative philosophy, is being modernized to deal with new realities i=
n the=20
software realm.=20

Bottom line:
Observers believe the GPL could be improved to be=
tter=20
deal with a world that involves patent lawsuits, locked-down hardware and=
publicly available Web services--all items on the GPL agenda.


href=3D"http://news.search.com/search?q=3D%22General+Public+License%22&=
search.x=3D25&search.y=3D8">color=3D#b23e3e>More stories about the GPL and other licenses=20


"The GPL has become the pivot point of a multibillion-dollar industry.=
Frankly, I don't think it was designed for that," said Mark Radcliffe, an=
attorney with Gray Cary who has studied the GPL and other licenses extensi=
vely.=20


For example, some would like to see clarifications that could help reduc=
e the=20
threat that using GPL software could entangle users in patent litigation. A=
nd=20
the GPL could be better adapted to recent industry initiatives such as buil=
ding=20
sophisticated Web services on the Internet and boosting security through tr=
usted=20
computing methods.


Ordinarily only attorneys give much thought to the legal documents that=
govern how software may be used. But the GPL is different.


The license is the agreement that helped show that cooperation can work =
in an=20
industry dominated by competition. And the most persuasive illustration of =
its=20
power is Linux, a rising threat to computing giants such as Microsoft and S=
un=20
Microsystems.



The GPL governs the programming instructions called source code that=20
developers write and then convert into the binary files that computers=20
understand. At its heart, the GPL permits anyone to see, modify and redistr=
ibute=20
that source code, as long as they make changes available publicly and licen=
se=20
them under the GPL. That contrasts with some licenses used in open-source=
projects that permit source code to be made proprietary.



Another requirement is that GPL software may be tightly integrated only =
with=20
other software that also is governed by the GPL. That provision helps to cr=
eate=20
a growing pool of GPL software, but it's also spurred some to label the lic=
ense=20
"viral," raising the specter that the inadvertent or surreptitious inclusio=
n of=20
GPL code in a proprietary product would require the release of all source c=
ode=20
under the GPL. Gates in particular derided the license as "title=3D"Gates wades into open-source debate -- Tuesday, Jun 19, 2001"=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/Gates+wades+into+open-source+debate/2100-1001_3=
-268667.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>Pac Man-like," evoking an image of a GPL softwar=
e=20
module gobbling its way along and forcing the release of source code it tou=
ches.=20


Thus far, that scenario hasn't come to pass. The GPL, though, has threat=
ened=20
Microsoft in another way: It helped foster a vast, vibrant programming=20
community.


Microsoft is keenly watching the arrival of the new GPL, which Stallman =
said=20
likely will be labeled version 3. But the company probably won't see change=
s to=20
that core provision separating GPL and proprietary code.


"Overall it's going to be the same," the globe-trotting Stallman said in=
a=20
telephone interview from Morocco. "I don't expect anyone releasing software=
under the GPL to be unhappy with the changes."


Changes aren't going to happen anytime soon, though. "We're nowhere near=
ready to have anything to show people anything yet. We know what we'd like=
to=20
do, but how to do it is not clear," Stallman said. Only when he's good and =
ready=20
will he begin seeking comments on a draft.



Stallman wrote the GPL in the 1980s as part of his Gnu's Not Unix, or href=3D"http://dw.com.com/redir?destUrl=3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.gnu.org%2F&=
siteId=3D3&oId=3D/Gates+wades+into+open-source+debate/2100-1001_3-26866=
7.html&ontId=3D7343&lop=3Dnl.ex">color=3D#b23e3e>GNU, project to create a clone of the operating =
system=20
unfettered by Unix's proprietary constraints--thus the term "free software"=
and=20
the Free Software Foundation that Stallman established to promote it.


According to href=3D"http://dw.com.com/redir?destUrl=3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Ffreshmeat.net%2Fbrow=
se%2F15%2F&siteId=3D3&oId=3D/Gates+wades+into+open-source+debate/21=
00-1001_3-268667.html&ontId=3D7343&lop=3Dnl.ex">color=3D#b23e3e>Freshmeat, which calls itself "the Web's largest=
index=20
of Unix and cross-platform software," there are more than 19,000 GPL-covere=
d=20
software projects, and the GPL governs 68 percent of projects in the Freshm=
eat=20
index.


The most prominent GPL project is Linux, the kernel of an operating syst=
em=20
that will underlie a title=3D"IDC: Linux PC sales to hit $10 billion in 2008 -- Wednesday, Dec 1=
5, 2004"=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/IDC+Linux+PC+sales+to+hit+10+billion+in+2008/21=
00-7344_3-5492399.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>$35.7 billion business in 2008, according to a f=
orecast=20
by market researcher IDC. Among others: the title=3D"MySQL takes cue from the master -- Wednesday, Apr 14, 2004"=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/MySQL+takes+cue+from+the+master/2100-7344_3-519=
0975.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>MySQL database, the title=3D"GPL gains clout in German legal case -- Thursday, Apr 22, 2004"=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/GPL+gains+clout+in+German+legal+case/2100-7344_=
3-5198117.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>netfilter/iptables protective firewall and the <=
A=20
title=3D"SCO attacks open-source foundation -- Tuesday, Oct 28, 2003"=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/SCO+attacks+open-source+foundation/2100-7344_3-=
5098610.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>Samba file-sharing software.


But programmers have other choices if they're not happy with the GPL. Ot=
her=20
licenses cover the title=3D"Firefox cutting into IE's lead -- Monday, Nov 22, 2004"=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/Firefox+cutting+into+IEs+lead/2100-1025_3-54635=
13.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>Mozilla project, which helped title=3D"Netscape now--for free -- Thursday, Jan 22, 1998"=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/Netscape+now--for+free/2100-1001_3-207366.html?=
tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>launch the open-source movement in 1998, and the=
widely=20
used title=3D"SpamAssassin sports new open-source license -- Wednesday, Sep 22, =
2004"=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/SpamAssassin+sports+new+open-source+license/210=
0-7344_3-5378375.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>Apache server software. And Sun Microsystems is =
testing=20
its title=3D"Sun open-source license could mean Solaris-Linux barrier -- Thursd=
ay, Dec 2, 2004"=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/Sun+open-source+license+could+mean+Solaris-Linu=
x+barrier/2100-7344_3-5475182.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>Community Development and Distribution License, =
which=20
likely will be used to govern its Solaris version of Unix.


The patent problem
Patents are one reason Sun chose the licens=
e it=20
did. How the GPL deals with that thorny legal area is the issue more than a=
dozen experts raised most often in discussions for this story.


The patent problems boil down to two issues. First, should the license=
explicitly require those who distribute GPL software to grant others unhin=
dered=20
use of whatever patented technology is involved in that software? And secon=
d,=20
should there be some form of punishment for those who file lawsuits allegin=
g=20
that GPL software infringes their patents?



These issues are under discussion for the next version of the GPL. "It m=
ay=20
possibly help protect our community from pirates armed with patents," said=
Stallman, an outspoken critic of the overall idea of title=3D"Group: Linux potentially infringes 283 patents -- Sunday, Aug 1, 2=
004"=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/Group+Linux+potentially+infringes+283+patents/2=
100-7344_3-5291403.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>software patents.


One interpretation of the current GPL is that patent holders who distrib=
ute=20
GPL software "are in effect granting an implied license" to those patents, =
said=20
href=3D"http://news.com.com/Red+Hat+adds+legal+firepower/2100-7344_3-521442=
8.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>Mark Webbink
, the lead intellectual-property att=
orney=20
for Linux seller Red Hat and a person who first saw revised GPL drafts in 2=
000.=20
But it might be useful to have an explicitly expressed patent agreement, he=
said. "A distributor may not want to leave that ambiguous as to what right=
s they=20
are giving."


Frank Bernstein, an attorney with Sughrue Mion, suggests Stallman look f=
or=20
inspiration to Apple Computer's href=3D"http://dw.com.com/redir?destUrl=3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.opensource.apple=
.com%2Fapsl%2F2.0.txt&siteId=3D3&oId=3D/Red+Hat+adds+legal+firepowe=
r/2100-7344_3-5214428.html&ontId=3D7343&lop=3Dnl.ex">color=3D#b23e3e>Apple Public Source License and the href=3D"http://dw.com.com/redir?destUrl=3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww-124.ibm.com%2Fde=
veloperworks%2Foss%2FCPLv1.0.htm&siteId=3D3&oId=3D/Red+Hat+adds+leg=
al+firepower/2100-7344_3-5214428.html&ontId=3D7343&lop=3Dnl.ex">NT=20
color=3D#b23e3e>Common Public License IBM often uses. Both grant=
a=20
license to use patents covering the software, and when it comes to organiza=
tions=20
that sue for patent infringement, both licenses terminate their rights to u=
se=20
and distribute the software.


Bernstein said addressing patents could make the GPL more palatable amon=
g=20
corporations--users that have become major contributors to, and customers o=
f,=20
open-source software.


But some would like to see the GPL be more of a political tool toovertur=
n the=20
idea of software patents. "We need to find some way to monkey-wrench the aw=
ful,=20
broken software-patent oligopoly before it does more serious damage," said =
Eric=20
Raymond, president of the href=3D"http://dw.com.com/redir?destUrl=3Dhttp%3A%2F%2Fwww.opensource.org%2=
F&siteId=3D3&oId=3D/Red+Hat+adds+legal+firepower/2100-7344_3-521442=
8.html&ontId=3D7343&lop=3Dnl.ex">color=3D#b23e3e>Open Source Initiative. "If GPL (version) 3 can =
help do=20
that, it would be extremely valuable."


And Bruce Perens, an open-source advocate, would like to see damages for=
a=20
patent-infringement suit extended to prohibit use not just of the software =
in=20
question but of all programs classified as free software. "I would like to =
see=20
the next issue of the GPL include a mutual-defense clause regarding patents=
,=20
such that if you enforce a patent against any free software, your rights to=
use=20
free software terminate," Perens said.


A middle ground is possible, Linux seller Novell said in a statement.=20
"Intellectual-property protection and open source can work hand in hand and=
are=20
not mutually inconsistent," the company said.


Other changes
Stallman listed several other areas where=20
modifications are under way:



* The GPL will become more compatible with some other free software=
licenses that have minor conditions that currently prohibit programmers fr=
om=20
intermingling the GPL and non-GPL code. None of those other licenses are ve=
ry=20
widely used, however, he said.


* An area of investigation is getting GPL software to run on device=
s=20
such as TiVo's digital video recorders, which use a specific version of Lin=
ux=20
but won't run modified versions. But prohibitions on modifications violates=
the=20
spirit of the GPL. "This is not what free software is supposed to be," Stal=
lman=20
said.


* The next version likely will have a mechanism for dealing with GP=
L=20
software that has been modified and that runs on publicly accessible comput=
ers.=20
Today, a programmer who wanted his or her GPL software to run in this publi=
c=20
fashion could insert a programming command that would let the public downlo=
ad a=20
version of the software if it's been modified. However, with the current GP=
L,=20
the organization running the software could simply remove that section of t=
he=20
code. Stallman is considering a provision that would prohibit its removal. =
"If=20
the program has such a command already, and you modify the program, you mus=
t=20
keep that working," he said.


Stallman isn't the only one looking for improvements.


href=3D"http://news.com.com/The+greening+of+Linux/2008-7344_3-5113112.html?=
tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>Martin Fink
, vice president of Linux at=20
Hewlett-Packard, has been grappling with some thorny GPL issues. One proble=
m he=20
foresees--related to the TiVo issue Stallman raises--is integration with th=
e "title=3D"Trusted computing comes with a warning -- Wednesday, Apr 16, 2003"=
href=3D"http://news.com.com/Trusted+computing+comes+with+a+warning/2100-10=
09_3-997223.html?tag=3Dnl">color=3D#b23e3e>trusted computing" technology under development.=


Trusted computing
Among other things, trusted computing is des=
igned=20
to permit execution only of software that has been cryptographically signed=
--but=20
that signature process could be at odds with the goals of sharing and=20
modification at the heart of the GPL, Fink said.


Another specific hitch is that the GPL isn't clear about what exactly=20
"distribution" means, Fink said. How should GPL software be treated that's=
distributed from a corporation to a subsidiary? Or from one machine to ano=
ther=20
as the program executes? "We're dealing in a world where a program entity i=
s not=20
confined to a machine. You can have bits and parts of a program that are hi=
ghly=20
distributed," Fink said, as in the widely embraced Web services concept. P>

Attorney John Ferrell of Carr & Ferrell would like to see a better=
indication of the use of derivative works--software based on the original =
GPL=20
product. Is it a derivative work to include a GPL component unmodified as p=
art=20
of a larger software suite?


Derivative works, copyrights and other concepts are central to the GPL b=
ut=20
those concepts vary by country and state. Radcliffe of Gray Cary would pref=
er=20
precise definitions that are more absolute.


GPL improvements are crucial to the open-source software realm, Fink sai=
d.=20
Improvements could help the license become more popular and better understo=
od,=20
which in turn would mean a larger body of GPL software that could be shared=
among projects.


"I'm trying to stop people from creating new licenses," Fink said. "To t=
he=20
extent we can create a license that has a broader buy-in, that stops=20
proliferation of more licenses, that to me is goodness."




href=3D"http://www.cnet.com/aboutcnet/0-13611-7-811029.html?tag=3Dft">Copyr=
ight=20
©1995-2004 CNET Networks, Inc. All rights reserved.

>



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------_=_NextPart_001_01C4EC26.B443A160--
____________________________
NYLXS: New Yorker Free Software Users Scene
Fair Use -
because it's either fair use or useless....
NYLXS is a trademark of NYLXS, Inc

  1. 2004-12-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] 'Free' Software Isn't Free (Article)
  2. 2004-12-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Suffering the Swings and Arrows of Outrageous Customer Service!
  3. 2004-12-30 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] In lui of a board meeting, some suggestions
  4. 2004-12-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Dual-booting multiple Linux distros
  5. 2004-12-29 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] NYLXS: Non-profit Status
  6. 2004-12-29 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [googlealerts-noreply-at-google.com: Google Alert - Linux]
  7. 2004-12-28 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] On the heels of the FireFox removal thing.
  8. 2004-12-28 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Fw: Re: [NMLUG] Microsoft still up to tricks
  9. 2004-12-28 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] Fw: Re: [NMLUG] Microsoft still up to tricks
  10. 2004-12-28 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Fw: Re: [NMLUG] Microsoft still up to tricks
  11. 2004-12-28 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] A Moment to Pause
  12. 2004-12-27 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Steinbeck's hometown to close libraries
  13. 2004-12-27 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Sprucing up open source's GPL foundation
  14. 2004-12-26 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Technite
  15. 2004-12-25 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Technite
  16. 2004-12-25 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] jobs3
  17. 2004-12-25 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Jobs2
  18. 2004-12-25 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Jobs
  19. 2004-12-25 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Free Software in Primary School Education
  20. 2004-12-23 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] supplies
  21. 2004-12-23 From: "rc" <ray-pub-at-rcn.com> RE: [hangout] supplies
  22. 2004-12-23 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] supplies
  23. 2004-12-23 From: "rc" <ray-pub-at-rcn.com> Subject: [hangout] supplies
  24. 2004-12-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Lost works from the web
  25. 2004-12-23 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [hangout] unsubscribe
  26. 2004-12-23 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] unsubscribe
  27. 2004-12-22 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Meeting today?
  28. 2004-12-21 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [meissner-at-suse.de: [suse-security-announce] SUSE Security Announcement: various kernel problems (SUSE-SA:2004:044)]
  29. 2004-12-21 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Urgent! I need an answer for the meeting ASAP.
  30. 2004-12-21 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Urgent! I need an answer for the meeting ASAP.
  31. 2004-12-21 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Board Meeting?
  32. 2004-12-20 mlr52 <mlr52-at-michaellrichardson.com> Subject: [hangout] Fwd: [wwwac] NY area high school art/design/media teacher contacts for workshop
  33. 2004-12-19 Evan Inker <einker-at-yahoo.com> Subject: [hangout] Fwd: Sunday Tech Night
  34. 2004-12-19 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Re: I would like to invite you to be aguest on my show. When you
  35. 2004-12-19 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] KDE
  36. 2004-12-19 Steve Lebetkin <SteveL-at-primagency.com> Subject: [hangout] KDE
  37. 2004-12-19 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Desktop FS System Software
  38. 2004-12-18 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Desktop FS System Software
  39. 2004-12-18 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [bruce.lai-at-council.nyc.ny.us: Upcoming hearings by the New York City Council's Committee on Technology in Government (as of 12.17.04).]
  40. 2004-12-17 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Way too Weird!!!!
  41. 2004-12-16 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Way too Weird!!!!
  42. 2004-12-15 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Lawsuit filed to prohibit copyright protection of software
  43. 2004-12-15 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Priorities for PR in Your New Year Plans (fwd)
  44. 2004-12-15 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Improving Job Market and the Linux Journal
  45. 2004-12-15 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Improving Job Market and the Linux Journal
  46. 2004-12-14 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> Subject: [hangout] FW: [Politics] retired
  47. 2004-12-14 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> Subject: [hangout] FW: How smart is your right foot?
  48. 2004-12-13 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Jobs Board
  49. 2004-12-13 wjc <wjc-at-optonline.net> Subject: [hangout] rpmfind.net
  50. 2004-12-12 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] cross posting.
  51. 2004-12-12 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] Voting (was:Re: why we need Free Software voting machines)
  52. 2004-12-12 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Great Article: Free as in Freedom - Part 1
  53. 2004-12-12 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Voting (was:Re: why we need Free Software voting
  54. 2004-12-12 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Voting (was:Re: why we need Free Software voting
  55. 2004-12-12 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Voting (was:Re: why we need Free Software voting
  56. 2004-12-12 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Voting (was:Re: why we need Free Software voting
  57. 2004-12-12 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Subject: [hangout] Re: why we need Free Software voting machines
  58. 2004-12-11 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] DSL or Broadband
  59. 2004-12-11 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Subject: [hangout] Why we need Free Software voting machines
  60. 2004-12-11 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] DSL or Broadband
  61. 2004-12-10 Steve Lebetkin <SteveL-at-primagency.com> Subject: [hangout] paging Paul Robert Marino
  62. 2004-12-10 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Subject: [hangout] Great Article: Free as in Freedom - Part 1
  63. 2004-12-10 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Re: Getting back to you.
  64. 2004-12-10 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Re: Linux class questions
  65. 2004-12-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Researchers warn laptop users of infertility risk
  66. 2004-12-09 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Board meeting
  67. 2004-12-09 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> Subject: [hangout] Board meeting
  68. 2004-12-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Introducing you to a new Linux Journal sister publi
  69. 2004-12-09 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] Introducing you to a new Linux Journal sister publi
  70. 2004-12-09 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] NYC gets no respect...
  71. 2004-12-09 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Introducing you to a new Linux Journal sister publication
  72. 2004-12-09 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] A Chanuka Gift from the City of New York
  73. 2004-12-08 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] A Chanuka Gift from the City of New York
  74. 2004-12-08 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] A Chanuka Gift from the City of New York
  75. 2004-12-08 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] A Chanuka Gift from the City of New York
  76. 2004-12-08 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] NYC gets no respect...
  77. 2004-12-08 From: "rc" <ray-pub-at-rcn.com> RE: [hangout] Open House CONGRADS!!!
  78. 2004-12-08 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: [nylxs-announce] GNU/Linux Scene Calender for Today]
  79. 2004-12-07 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] Open House CONGRADS!!!
  80. 2004-12-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Leads: Student Club
  81. 2004-12-07 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Open House CONGRADS!!!
  82. 2004-12-07 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Open House CONGRADS!!!
  83. 2004-12-07 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Open House CONGRADS!!!
  84. 2004-12-07 From: "rc" <ray-pub-at-rcn.com> RE: [hangout] Open House CONGRADS!!!
  85. 2004-12-07 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Open House CONGRADS!!!
  86. 2004-12-07 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Open House CONGRADS!!!
  87. 2004-12-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Open House CONGRADS!!!
  88. 2004-12-06 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Paging David Sugar
  89. 2004-12-06 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Help with Open House set up
  90. 2004-12-06 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] [nylxs-announce] GNU/Linux Scene Calender for Today
  91. 2004-12-06 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [nylxs-announce] GNU/Linux Scene Calender for Today
  92. 2004-12-05 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Open House and Classes Drive
  93. 2004-12-05 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Novel Review
  94. 2004-12-04 swd <sderrick-at-optonline.net> Re: [hangout] What would the definition of enterprise
  95. 2004-12-04 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [hangout] What would the definition of enterprise level
  96. 2004-12-03 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Holography and Computers
  97. 2004-12-03 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] NYLXS Radio Show
  98. 2004-12-03 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Subject: [hangout] I have an announcement message,
  99. 2004-12-03 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Open House and Classes Drive
  100. 2004-12-03 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Open House and Classes Drive
  101. 2004-12-03 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Open House and Classes Drive
  102. 2004-12-02 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Open House and Classes Drive
  103. 2004-12-02 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] Open House and Classes Drive
  104. 2004-12-02 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Open House and Classes Drive
  105. 2004-12-02 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Open House and Classes Drive
  106. 2004-12-02 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Open House and Classes Drive
  107. 2004-12-02 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] New Website Advice
  108. 2004-12-02 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Subject: [hangout] leafleting report
  109. 2004-12-02 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Getting New Volunteers
  110. 2004-12-02 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Kill all the Spammers
  111. 2004-12-02 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] What would the definition of enterprise level computing be?
  112. 2004-12-02 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] need car
  113. 2004-12-02 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] mp3 editing
  114. 2004-12-01 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Meeting Tomorrow Morning
  115. 2004-12-01 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Meeting Tomorrow Morning
  116. 2004-12-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] GNU/Linux gains in data warehousing
  117. 2004-12-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Meeting Tomorrow Morning
  118. 2004-12-01 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] What would the definition of enterprise level computing be?
  119. 2004-12-01 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [bruce.lai-at-council.nyc.ny.us: Upcoming Hearings by the Committee on Technology in Government of the New York City Council (as of Nov. 30, 2004)
  120. 2004-12-01 Contrarian <adrba-at-nyct.net> Re: [hangout] [Fwd: [FCNYC] Computer ONLY for non-profit!!!] (fwd)

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