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DATE 2014-12-01

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MESSAGE
DATE 2014-12-09
FROM Ruben Safir
SUBJECT Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] CPU Instructions - Notes for Chapter 14
From owner-hangout-outgoing-at-mrbrklyn.com Tue Dec 9 12:29:25 2014
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Date: Tue, 09 Dec 2014 12:29:32 -0500
From: Ruben Safir
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Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] CPU Instructions - Notes for Chapter 14
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the details of branching decisions have been sacrified for time

http://www.nylxs.com/docs/grad_school/arch/cpu_design.txt.html


Unless I missede something, I'm done with notes for this class for the
time being

HW and reviews are next. I'm showering and will be in the school in
about 1.5 hours, doing HW.


1 15.0 CPU construction:
2 3 15.01 CU
4 15.02 ALU
5 0.021 Status Flag
6 0.022 Shifter
7 0.025 Complimentor
8 0.026 Internal CPU Bus
9 0.027 registers
10 11 15.1 Registers: Two kinds
12 13 15.11 User Visible Registers
14 15.111 Enable Machine Language Programs
15 15.112 Minimize main memory references
16 17 15.12 Control Status Registers
18 15.121 Used by CU
19 15.122 Privileged Operations
20 15.123 OS control to execute programs
21 22 15.13 The separation is not cut and dry
23 24 15.13 User Visible Registers Usage:
25 15.131 General Purpose Registers
26 1311 Various programmatic functions
27 1312 Can have an operand for any opcode
28 1313 Some may by dedicated for Floating Point or Stack Operations
29 1314 Can be used, as shown, for addressing fuctions (Register,
Indirect,
30 Displacement)
31 1315 Sometimes they are separated between Data and Address
Registers
32 13151 Data Registers: Only to hold data and can not be
employed for
33 calculation of an operand address
34 13152 Address Registers:
35 521 Segment Pointers
36 522 Index Registers
37 523 Stack Pointers: Points to the top of the stack
38 39 15.132 Optcodes have be limited to specialized registers
according to their
40 function. It saves a bit but limits the programmer.
41 42 15.133 The more registers require the more operand specific bits
43 15.134 Between 8-32 registers seem optimum
44 15.135 RISK processors use 100s of registers
45 15.136 Registers must be large enough to do their job of holding
memory
46 addresses or storing data
47 48 15.137 Condition Code Registers - Flags
49 15.1371 Reduce Tests and Compares
50 15.1372 Branch Flags are simpler that optcodes for these purposes
51 15.1373 Facilitate Multiway branching
52 53 15.1374 They add complexity for the programmer
54 15.1375 They are irregular and not part of the main memory branch
55 15.1376 Often condition code machines must add special
non-condition code
56 instructions for special situations anyway, such as bit
checking, loop
57 control, and atomic semaphore operations. ??? WHAT???
58 15.1377 Need to be synchronized in pipeline burst usage
59 15.1378 Subroutines will autosave all visible registers to be
returned
60 when the routine is finished
61 62 15.14 Control and Status Registers: Not usually user visable
63 15.1401 Some are visiable to Machine Codes and functions in
Operating
64 system modes.
65 66 15.141 Essential Registers
67 15.1411 Program Counter
68 15.1412 Instruction Register
69 15.1413 Memory Address Register
70 15.1414 Memory Buffer Register
71 15.14141 The fetched instruction is loaded into an IR,
72 where the opcode and operand specifiers are analyzed.
73 74 15.142 The ALU might have direct access to the MBR and
the registers
75 76 15.143 Program Status Word - Register that contains status
information
77 15.1431 Sign: Contains the sign bit of the result of the
last arithmetic operation.
78 15.1432 Zero: Set when the result is 0.
79 15.1433 Carry: Set if an operation resulted in a carry
(addition) into or borrow
80 (subtraction) out of a high-order bit. Used for multiword
arithmetic operations.
81 15.1434 Equal: Set if a logical compare result is equality.
82 15.1435 Overflow: Used to indicate arithmetic overflow.
83 15.1436 Interrupt Enable/Disable: Used to enable or disable
interrupts.
84 15.1437 Supervisor: Indicates whether the processor is
executing in supervisor or
85 user mode. Certain privileged instructions can be
executed only in
86 supervisor mode, and certain areas of memory can
be accessed only in
87 supervisor mode.
88 15.144 Blocks, Sectors Stacks and Subroutines need controls and
pointers
89 15.145 Sample CPU Register Design
90 91 http://www.nylxs.com/images/sample_cpu_register_design.png
92 93 15.2 Instruction Cycle: As we learned from before:
94 15.21 Fetch, Execute, Interupt
95 15.22 Indirect Cycle: Fetching Indirect Addresses are one more
96 instruction stage.
97 http://www.nylxs.com/images/instructioncycle_with_indirection.png
98 99 15.3 Data Flow:
100 .31 During the fetch cycle, an instruction is read from memory.
101 .32 The PC contains the address of the next instruction to be
fetched.
102 This address is moved to the MAR and placed on the address bus.
103 .33 The control unit requests a memory read
104 .331 the result is placed on the data bus
105 .332 Result is copied into the MBR
106 .333 and then moved to the IR.
107 108 .34 control unit examines the contents of the IR
109 .341 Checks for Indirection
110 .3411 Indrection Cycle, puts the A on the MAR to fetch
the real
111 operand
112 .35 Execute Cycle is perform: Very specific to the hardware and
113 difficult to generalize
114 .36 Interrupt Cycle : simple and predictable. The current
contents of
115 the PC must be saved so that the processor can resume normal
activity
116 after the interrupt.
117 .361 PC are transferred to the MBR to be written into memory.
118 .362 Special memory location reserved for this purpose is
loaded
119 into the MAR from the control unit.
120 .363 It might, for example, be a stack pointer.
121 .364 The PC is loaded with the address of the interrupt
122 routine.
123 124 15.4 Pipelining Strategy
125 .41 An Assembly Line approach to memory usage.
126 .42 Inputs are received prior to the finish of the
instruction cycle
127 for the previous instruction
128 .43 Instruction prefetch or fetch overlap.
129 .44 When a conditional branch instruction is passed on from
the fetch to the ex-
130 ecute stage, the fetch stage fetches the next instruction in memory
after the branch
131 instruction. Then, if the branch is not taken, no time is lost. If
the branch is taken, the
132 fetched instruction must be discarded and a new instruction fetched.
133 134 .45 Example:
135 Let us consider the following decomposition of the
instruction processing.
136 • Fetch instruction (FI): Read the next expected
instruction into a buffer.
137 • Decode instruction (DI): Determine the opcode and the
operand specifiers.
138 • Calculate operands (CO): Calculate the effective
address of each source
139 operand. This may involve displacement, register
indirect, indirect, or other
140 forms of address calculation.
141 • Fetch operands (FO): Fetch each operand from memory.
Operands in regis-
142 ters need not be fetched.
143 • Execute instruction (EI): Perform the indicated
operation and store the result,
144 if any, in the specified destination operand location.
145 • Write operand (WO): Store the result in memory.
146 147 The Savings in Time is viewable in this chart:
148 http://www.nylxs.com/images/pipeline_savings.png
149 150 .46 Pipeline has to have logic to know that if a condition
is changed
151 that affects instructions in the pipeline, that those pipelined
152 instruction are not valid. Data in a memory location might be
changed,
153 for example.
154 155 .461 Pipeline by breaking down increasingly smaller tasks
has overhead
156 and can limit pipelining efficiency
157 158 .4611 two factors that frustrate this seemingly simple
pattern
159 for high- performance design [ANDE67a], and they remain
elements
160 that designer must still consider:
161 162 .46111. At each stage of the pipeline, there is some
overhead
163 involved in moving data from buffer to buffer and in performing
164 various preparation and delivery functions. This overhead
165 can appreciably lengthen the total execution time of a single
166 instruction. This is significant when sequential
instructions are
167 logical- ly dependent, either through heavy use of branching or
168 through memory access dependencies.
169 170 .46112. The amount of control logic required to handle
memory
171 and register dependencies and to optimize the use of the
172 pipeline increases enormously with the number of stages. This
173 can lead to a situation where the logic controlling the gating
174 between stages is more complex than the stages being
controlled.
175 176 .4612 Latching Delay - it takes time for the buffers to
fill
177 178 .462 Pipeline Performance:
179 t = max [ti] + d = tm + d
180 1 =< i =< k
181 where
182 183 ti = time delay of the circuitry in the ith stage of the pipeline
184 tm = maximum stage delay (delay through stage which experiences the
185 largest delay)
186 k = number of stages in the instruction pipeline
187 d = time delay of a latch, needed to advance signals and data
from one stage
188 to the next
189 190 .463 Pipeline Hazards:
191 .4631 Resource Hazards: two instructions in the pipeline need
the same
192 resource
193 .4632 Data Hazards: Two instructions in the pipeline are
affecting the
194 same data and stepping on each other.
195 .46321 Read after Write (RAW) - True Dependency
196 .46322 Write after Read - Anti-dependency
197 .46323 Write after Write - Output Dependency
198 .4633 Control Hazard: Unexpected branches - pipeline has to be
flushed
199 .4634 Branching Strategies:
200 341 Multiple Streams - Guess both branches and do them both
until one
201 is discarded
202 342 Prefetch Branch Target: Do the target and store it in
a cache
203 until needed
204 343 Loop Buffer: Cache recent instructions and look to see
if they
205 are be recalled. If so, pull them from the buffer.
206 .4635 Branch Prediction - Good luck with that
207 .46351 • Predict never taken
208 .46352 • Predict always taken
209 .46353 • Predict by opcode
210 .46354 • Taken/not taken switch
211 .46355 • Branch history table
212 213 214 215

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  55. 2014-12-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [Dng] fraud warning
  56. 2014-12-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [hellekin-at-dyne.org: Re: [Dng] fraud warning]
  57. 2014-12-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [devuan-list1-at-dekkers.org.uk: Re: [Dng] fraud warning]
  58. 2014-12-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [mfidelman-at-meetinghouse.net: Re: [Dng] fraud warning]
  59. 2014-12-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [Dng] fraud warning
  60. 2014-12-01 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [Dng] fraud warning
  61. 2014-12-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Notes on Memory Cache and Internal Memory
  62. 2014-12-02 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [Dng] fraud warning
  63. 2014-12-05 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] NYLXS Linux Distribution
  64. 2014-12-07 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Computer Available
  65. 2014-12-07 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: Reminder: webOS Cloud Services to end January 15, 2015
  66. 2014-12-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Notes Done on In and Out, Operating Systemsm Modules and Memoery
  67. 2014-12-08 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Foundation for OPTCODE and Machine Instruction
  68. 2014-12-09 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [LIU Comp Sci] Machine Instructions notes
  69. 2014-12-09 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Fwd: Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com: Re: Architecture
  70. 2014-12-09 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] CPU Instructions - Notes for Chapter 14
  71. 2014-12-10 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Assembler Class online and free
  72. 2014-12-10 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] laptop madness
  73. 2014-12-11 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: turning attibute values into relations?
  74. 2014-12-11 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: Invitation: Flatiron Alumni Present!
  75. 2014-12-12 mrbrklyn-at-panix.com Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [csconnection-at-computer.org: Is 3D Printing for You?]
  76. 2014-12-14 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [mrbrklyn-at-panix.com: Re: [LIU Comp Sci] Answers to the final review
  77. 2014-12-15 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] sky fy
  78. 2014-12-17 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: Re: [opensuse] Firefox 34?
  79. 2014-12-18 Ruben <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] cowards
  80. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] linksys smart routes external connections
  81. 2014-12-20 eminker-at-gmail.com Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] linksys smart routes external connections
  82. 2014-12-20 eminker-at-gmail.com Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] linksys smart routes external connections
  83. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] DRM SOPA MPAA continuing advancement
  84. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] DRM SOPA MPAA continuing advancement
  85. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] DRM SOPA MPAA continuing advancement
  86. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] DRM SOPA MPAA continuing advancement
  87. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] DRM SOPA MPAA continuing advancement
  88. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] fighting back against the MPAA
  89. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] fighting back against the MPAA
  90. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] linksys smart routes external connections
  91. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] linksys smart routes external connections
  92. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fraud Alerts
  93. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fraud Alerts
  94. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Devuan Fork and Fraud
  95. 2014-12-20 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] DNS assualt by MPAA
  96. 2014-12-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [jaromil-at-dyne.org: Re: [Dng] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  97. 2014-12-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [jonathan-at-plews.org.uk: Re: [Dng] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  98. 2014-12-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [Dng] Devuan Fork and Fraud
  99. 2014-12-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] [jaromil-at-dyne.org: Re: [Dng] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  100. 2014-12-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [Dng] Devuan Fork and Fraud
  101. 2014-12-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [mrbrklyn-at-panix.com: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  102. 2014-12-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [mrbrklyn-at-panix.com: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  103. 2014-12-21 Ruben <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Fwd: Re: [Dng] Devuan Fork and Fraud
  104. 2014-12-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [Dng] Devuan Fork and Fraud
  105. 2014-12-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Re: [Dng] Devuan Fork and Fraud
  106. 2014-12-21 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Nice Paleontology Class
  107. 2014-12-22 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [mrbrklyn-at-panix.com: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  108. 2014-12-22 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [mrbrklyn-at-panix.com: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  109. 2014-12-22 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [mrbrklyn-at-panix.com: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  110. 2014-12-22 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [mrbrklyn-at-panix.com: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  111. 2014-12-22 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [mrbrklyn-at-panix.com: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  112. 2014-12-22 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Re: [mrbrklyn-at-panix.com: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Devuan Fork and Fraud]
  113. 2014-12-23 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Signal to Noise ration
  114. 2014-12-30 Ruben Safir <mrbrklyn-at-panix.com> Subject: [NYLXS - HANGOUT] Creating a New OS: Final Projects for MS degree

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