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DATE 2004-07-01

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MESSAGE
DATE 2004-07-26
FROM From: "Inker, Evan"
SUBJECT Subject: [hangout] Active FTP vs. Passive FTP, a Definitive Explanation
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To: hangout-at-nylxs.com
Subject: [hangout] Active FTP vs. Passive FTP, a Definitive Explanation
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Active FTP vs. Passive FTP, a Definitive Explanation

http://www.slacksite.com/other/ftp.html




Contents:


* Introduction

* The Basics

* Active FTP

* Active FTP
Example

* Passive FTP

* Passive FTP
Example

* Summary

* References

* Appendix 1:
Configuration of Common FTP Servers



introIntroduction


One of the most commonly seen questions when dealing with firewalls and
other Internet connectivity issues is the difference between active and
passive FTP and how best to support either or both of them. Hopefully the
following text will help to clear up some of the confusion over how to
support FTP in a firewalled environment.

This may not be the definitive explanation, as the title claims, however,
I've heard enough good feedback and seen this document linked in enough
places to know that quite a few people have found it to be useful. I am
always looking for ways to improve things though, and if you find something
that is not quite clear or needs more explanation, please let me know!
Recent additions to this document include the examples of both active and
passive command line FTP sessions. These session examples should help make
things a bit clearer. They also provide a nice picture into what goes on
behind the scenes during an FTP session. Now, on to the information...



basicsThe Basics


FTP is a TCP based service exclusively. There is no UDP component to FTP.
FTP is an unusual service in that it utilizes two ports, a 'data' port and a
'command' port (also known as the control port). Traditionally these are
port 21 for the command port and port 20 for the data port. The confusion
begins however, when we find that depending on the mode, the data port is
not always on port 20.



activeActive FTP


In active mode FTP the client connects from a random unprivileged port (N >
1024) to the FTP server's command port, port 21. Then, the client starts
listening to port N+1 and sends the FTP command PORT N+1 to the FTP server.
The server will then connect back to the client's specified data port from
its local data port, which is port 20.

>From the server-side firewall's standpoint, to support active mode FTP the
following communication channels need to be opened:


* FTP server's port 21 from anywhere (Client initiates connection)

* FTP server's port 21 to ports > 1024 (Server responds to client's
control port)

* FTP server's port 20 to ports > 1024 (Server initiates data
connection to client's data port)

* FTP server's port 20 from ports > 1024 (Client sends ACKs to
server's data port)

When drawn out, the connection appears as follows:


In step 1, the client's command port contacts the server's command port and
sends the command PORT 1027. The server then sends an ACK back to the
client's command port in step 2. In step 3 the server initiates a connection
on its local data port to the data port the client specified earlier.
Finally, the client sends an ACK back as shown in step 4.

The main problem with active mode FTP actually falls on the client side. The
FTP client doesn't make the actual connection to the data port of the
server--it simply tells the server what port it is listening on and the
server connects back to the specified port on the client. From the client
side firewall this appears to be an outside system initiating a connection
to an internal client--something that is usually blocked.



actexampleActive FTP Example


Below is an actual example of an active FTP session. The only things that
have been changed are the server names, IP addresses, and user names. In
this example an FTP session is initiated from testbox1.slacksite.com
(192.168.150.80), a linux box running the standard FTP command line client,
to testbox2.slacksite.com (192.168.150.90), a linux box running ProFTPd
1.2.2RC2. The debugging (-d) flag is used with the FTP client to show what
is going on behind the scenes. Everything in red is the debugging output
which shows the actual FTP commands being sent to the server and the
responses generated from those commands. Normal server output is shown in
black, and user input is in bold.

There are a few interesting things to consider about this dialog. Notice
that when the PORT command is issued, it specifies a port on the client
(192.168.150.80) system, rather than the server. We will see the opposite
behavior when we use passive FTP. While we are on the subject, a quick note
about the format of the PORT command. As you can see in the example below it
is formatted as a series of six numbers separated by commas. The first four
octets are the IP address while the second two octets comprise the port that
will be used for the data connection. To find the actual port multiply the
fifth octet by 256 and then add the sixth octet to the total. Thus in the
example below the port number is ( (14*256) + 178), or 3762. A quick check
with netstat should confirm this information.

testbox1: {/home/p-t/slacker/public_html} % ftp -d testbox2

Connected to testbox2.slacksite.com.

220 testbox2.slacksite.com FTP server ready.

Name (testbox2:slacker): slacker

---> USER slacker

331 Password required for slacker.

Password: TmpPass

---> PASS XXXX

230 User slacker logged in.

---> SYST

215 UNIX Type: L8

Remote system type is UNIX.

Using binary mode to transfer files.

ftp> ls

ftp: setsockopt (ignored): Permission denied

---> PORT 192,168,150,80,14,178

200 PORT command successful.

---> LIST

150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for file list.

drwx------ 3 slacker users 104 Jul 27 01:45 public_html

226 Transfer complete.

ftp> quit

---> QUIT

221 Goodbye.


passivePassive FTP


In order to resolve the issue of the server initiating the connection to the
client a different method for FTP connections was developed. This was known
as passive mode, or PASV, after the command used by the client to tell the
server it is in passive mode.

In passive mode FTP the client initiates both connections to the server,
solving the problem of firewalls filtering the incoming data port connection
to the client from the server. When opening an FTP connection, the client
opens two random unprivileged ports locally (N > 1024 and N+1). The first
port contacts the server on port 21, but instead of then issuing a PORT
command and allowing the server to connect back to its data port, the client
will issue the PASV command. The result of this is that the server then
opens a random unprivileged port (P > 1024) and sends the PORT P command
back to the client. The client then initiates the connection from port N+1
to port P on the server to transfer data.

>From the server-side firewall's standpoint, to support passive mode FTP the
following communication channels need to be opened:


* FTP server's port 21 from anywhere (Client initiates connection)

* FTP server's port 21 to ports > 1024 (Server responds to client's
control port)

* FTP server's ports > 1024 from anywhere (Client initiates data
connection to random port specified by server)

* FTP server's ports > 1024 to remote ports > 1024 (Server sends ACKs
(and data) to client's data port)

When drawn, a passive mode FTP connection looks like this:


In step 1, the client contacts the server on the command port and issues the
PASV command. The server then replies in step 2 with PORT 2024, telling the
client which port it is listening to for the data connection. In step 3 the
client then initiates the data connection from its data port to the
specified server data port. Finally, the server sends back an ACK in step 4
to the client's data port.

While passive mode FTP solves many of the problems from the client side, it
opens up a whole range of problems on the server side. The biggest issue is
the need to allow any remote connection to high numbered ports on the
server. Fortunately, many FTP daemons, including the popular WU-FTPD allow
the administrator to specify a range of ports which the FTP server will use.
See Appendix 1 for more
information.

The second issue involves supporting and troubleshooting clients which do
(or do not) support passive mode. As an example, the command line FTP
utility provided with Solaris does not support passive mode, necessitating a
third-party FTP client, such as ncftp.

With the massive popularity of the World Wide Web, many people prefer to use
their web browser as an FTP client. Most browsers only support passive mode
when accessing ftp:// URLs. This can either be good or bad depending on what
the servers and firewalls are configured to support.



pasvexamplePassive FTP Example


Below is an actual example of a passive FTP session. The only things that
have been changed are the server names, IP addresses, and user names. In
this example an FTP session is initiated from testbox1.slacksite.com
(192.168.150.80), a linux box running the standard FTP command line client,
to testbox2.slacksite.com (192.168.150.90), a linux box running ProFTPd
1.2.2RC2. The debugging (-d) flag is used with the FTP client to show what
is going on behind the scenes. Everything in red is the debugging output
which shows the actual FTP commands being sent to the server and the
responses generated from those commands. Normal server output is shown in
black, and user input is in bold.

Notice the difference in the PORT command in this example as opposed to the
active FTP example. Here, we see a port being opened on the server
(192.168.150.90) system, rather than the client. See the discussion about
the format of the PORT command above, in the Active FTP Example section
.

testbox1: {/home/p-t/slacker/public_html} % ftp -d testbox2

Connected to testbox2.slacksite.com.

220 testbox2.slacksite.com FTP server ready.

Name (testbox2:slacker): slacker

---> USER slacker

331 Password required for slacker.

Password: TmpPass

---> PASS XXXX

230 User slacker logged in.

---> SYST

215 UNIX Type: L8

Remote system type is UNIX.

Using binary mode to transfer files.

ftp> passive

Passive mode on.

ftp> ls

ftp: setsockopt (ignored): Permission denied

---> PASV

227 Entering Passive Mode (192,168,150,90,195,149).

---> LIST

150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for file list

drwx------ 3 slacker users 104 Jul 27 01:45 public_html

226 Transfer complete.

ftp> quit

---> QUIT

221 Goodbye.


summarySummary


The following chart should help admins remember how each FTP mode works:

Active FTP :

command : client >1024 -> server 21

data : client >1024 <- server 20



Passive FTP :

command : client >1024 -> server 21

data : client >1024 -> server >1024

A quick summary of the pros and cons of active vs. passive FTP is also in
order:

Active FTP is beneficial to the FTP server admin, but detrimental to the
client side admin. The FTP server attempts to make connections to random
high ports on the client, which would almost certainly be blocked by a
firewall on the client side. Passive FTP is beneficial to the client, but
detrimental to the FTP server admin. The client will make both connections
to the server, but one of them will be to a random high port, which would
almost certainly be blocked by a firewall on the server side.

Luckily, there is somewhat of a compromise. Since admins running FTP servers
will need to make their servers accessible to the greatest number of
clients, they will almost certainly need to support passive FTP. The
exposure of high level ports on the server can be minimized by specifying a
limited port range for the FTP server to use. Thus, everything except for
this range of ports can be firewalled on the server side. While this doesn't
eliminate all risk to the server, it decreases it tremendously. See Appendix
1 for more information.




referencesReferences


An excellent reference on how various internet protocols work and the issues
involved in firewalling them can be found in the O'Reilly and Associates
book, Building Internet Firewalls, 2nd Ed, by Brent Chapman and Elizabeth
Zwicky.

Finally, the definitive reference on FTP would be RFC 959, which sets forth
the official specifications of the FTP protocol. RFCs can be downloaded from
numerous locations, including ftp://nic.merit.edu/documents/rfc/rfc0959.txt
.



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Message




Active FTP vs. Passive FTP, a Definitive Explanation




Contents:





Introduction


One of the most commonly seen questions when dealing with firewalls and other
Internet connectivity issues is the difference between active and passive FTP
and how best to support either or both of them. Hopefully the following text
will help to clear up some of the confusion over how to support FTP in a
firewalled environment.


This may not be the definitive explanation, as the title claims,
however, I've heard enough good feedback and seen this document linked in enough
places to know that quite a few people have found it to be useful. I am always
looking for ways to improve things though, and if you find something that is not
quite clear or needs more explanation, please let me know! Recent additions to
this document include the examples of both active and passive command line FTP
sessions. These session examples should help make things a bit clearer. They
also provide a nice picture into what goes on behind the scenes during an FTP
session. Now, on to the information...



The Basics


FTP is a TCP based service exclusively. There is no UDP component to FTP. FTP
is an unusual service in that it utilizes two ports, a 'data' port and a
'command' port (also known as the control port). Traditionally these are port 21
for the command port and port 20 for the data port. The confusion begins
however, when we find that depending on the mode, the data port is not always on
port 20.



Active FTP


In active mode FTP the client connects from a random unprivileged port (N
> 1024) to the FTP server's command port, port 21. Then, the client starts
listening to port N+1 and sends the FTP command PORT N+1 to the FTP
server. The server will then connect back to the client's specified data port
from its local data port, which is port 20.


From the server-side firewall's standpoint, to support active mode FTP the
following communication channels need to be opened:


  • FTP server's port 21 from anywhere (Client initiates connection)
  • FTP server's port 21 to ports > 1024 (Server responds to client's
    control port)
  • FTP server's port 20 to ports > 1024 (Server initiates data connection
    to client's data port)
  • FTP server's port 20 from ports > 1024 (Client sends ACKs to server's
    data port)


When drawn out, the connection appears as follows:


In step 1, the client's command port contacts the server's command port
and sends the command PORT 1027. The server then sends an ACK back
to the client's command port in step 2. In step 3 the server initiates a
connection on its local data port to the data port the client specified earlier.
Finally, the client sends an ACK back as shown in step 4.


The main problem with active mode FTP actually falls on the client side. The
FTP client doesn't make the actual connection to the data port of the server--it
simply tells the server what port it is listening on and the server connects
back to the specified port on the client. From the client side firewall this
appears to be an outside system initiating a connection to an internal
client--something that is usually blocked.



Active FTP Example


Below is an actual example of an active FTP session. The only things that
have been changed are the server names, IP addresses, and user names. In this
example an FTP session is initiated from testbox1.slacksite.com
(192.168.150.80), a linux box running the standard FTP command line client, to
testbox2.slacksite.com (192.168.150.90), a linux box running ProFTPd 1.2.2RC2.
The debugging (-d) flag is used with the FTP client to show what is
going on behind the scenes. Everything in red is the
debugging output which shows the actual FTP commands being sent to the server
and the responses generated from those commands. Normal server output is shown
in black, and user input is in bold.


There are a few interesting things to consider about this dialog. Notice that
when the PORT command is issued, it specifies a port on the
client (192.168.150.80) system, rather than the server. We will see the
opposite behavior when we use passive FTP. While we are on the subject, a quick
note about the format of the PORT command. As you can see in the
example below it is formatted as a series of six numbers separated by commas.
The first four octets are the IP address while the second two octets comprise
the port that will be used for the data connection. To find the actual port
multiply the fifth octet by 256 and then add the sixth octet to the total. Thus
in the example below the port number is ( (14*256) + 178), or 3762. A quick
check with netstat should confirm this information.

testbox1: {/home/p-t/slacker/public_html} % ftp -d testbox2
Connected to testbox2.slacksite.com.
220 testbox2.slacksite.com FTP server ready.
Name (testbox2:slacker): slacker
---> USER slacker
331 Password required for slacker.
Password: TmpPass
---> PASS XXXX
230 User slacker logged in.
---> SYST
215 UNIX Type: L8

Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> ls
ftp: setsockopt (ignored): Permission denied
---> PORT 192,168,150,80,14,178

200 PORT command successful.
---> LIST
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for file list.
drwx------ 3 slacker users 104 Jul 27 01:45 public_html
226 Transfer complete.
ftp> quit
---> QUIT
221 Goodbye.


Passive FTP


In order to resolve the issue of the server initiating the connection to the
client a different method for FTP connections was developed. This was known as
passive mode, or PASV, after the command used by the client to tell
the server it is in passive mode.


In passive mode FTP the client initiates both connections to the server,
solving the problem of firewalls filtering the incoming data port connection to
the client from the server. When opening an FTP connection, the client opens two
random unprivileged ports locally (N > 1024 and N+1). The first port contacts
the server on port 21, but instead of then issuing a PORT command
and allowing the server to connect back to its data port, the client will issue
the PASV command. The result of this is that the server then opens
a random unprivileged port (P > 1024) and sends the PORT P
command back to the client. The client then initiates the connection from port
N+1 to port P on the server to transfer data.


From the server-side firewall's standpoint, to support passive mode FTP the
following communication channels need to be opened:


  • FTP server's port 21 from anywhere (Client initiates connection)
  • FTP server's port 21 to ports > 1024 (Server responds to client's
    control port)
  • FTP server's ports > 1024 from anywhere (Client initiates data
    connection to random port specified by server)
  • FTP server's ports > 1024 to remote ports > 1024 (Server sends ACKs
    (and data) to client's data port)


When drawn, a passive mode FTP connection looks like this:


In step 1, the client contacts the server on the command port and
issues the PASV command. The server then replies in step 2 with
PORT 2024, telling the client which port it is listening to for the
data connection. In step 3 the client then initiates the data connection from
its data port to the specified server data port. Finally, the server sends back
an ACK in step 4 to the client's data port.


While passive mode FTP solves many of the problems from the client side, it
opens up a whole range of problems on the server side. The biggest issue is the
need to allow any remote connection to high numbered ports on the server.
Fortunately, many FTP daemons, including the popular WU-FTPD allow the
administrator to specify a range of ports which the FTP server will use. See href="http://www.slacksite.com/other/ftp-appendix1.html">Appendix 1 for more
information.


The second issue involves supporting and troubleshooting clients which do (or
do not) support passive mode. As an example, the command line FTP utility
provided with Solaris does not support passive mode, necessitating a third-party
FTP client, such as ncftp.


With the massive popularity of the World Wide Web, many people prefer to use
their web browser as an FTP client. Most browsers only support passive mode when
accessing ftp:// URLs. This can either be good or bad depending on what the
servers and firewalls are configured to support.



Passive FTP Example


Below is an actual example of a passive FTP session. The only things that
have been changed are the server names, IP addresses, and user names. In this
example an FTP session is initiated from testbox1.slacksite.com
(192.168.150.80), a linux box running the standard FTP command line client, to
testbox2.slacksite.com (192.168.150.90), a linux box running ProFTPd 1.2.2RC2.
The debugging (-d) flag is used with the FTP client to show what is
going on behind the scenes. Everything in red is the
debugging output which shows the actual FTP commands being sent to the server
and the responses generated from those commands. Normal server output is shown
in black, and user input is in bold.


Notice the difference in the PORT command in this example as
opposed to the active FTP example. Here, we see a port being opened on the
server (192.168.150.90) system, rather than the client. See the
discussion about the format of the PORT command above, in the href="http://www.slacksite.com/other/actexample">Active FTP Example section.

testbox1: {/home/p-t/slacker/public_html} % ftp -d testbox2
Connected to testbox2.slacksite.com.
220 testbox2.slacksite.com FTP server ready.
Name (testbox2:slacker): slacker
---> USER slacker
331 Password required for slacker.
Password: TmpPass
---> PASS XXXX
230 User slacker logged in.
---> SYST
215 UNIX Type: L8

Remote system type is UNIX.
Using binary mode to transfer files.
ftp> passive
Passive mode on.
ftp> ls
ftp: setsockopt (ignored): Permission denied
---> PASV

227 Entering Passive Mode (192,168,150,90,195,149).
---> LIST
150 Opening ASCII mode data connection for file list
drwx------ 3 slacker users 104 Jul 27 01:45 public_html
226 Transfer complete.
ftp> quit
---> QUIT
221 Goodbye.


Summary


The following chart should help admins remember how each FTP mode works:

 Active FTP :
command : client >1024 -> server 21
data : client >1024 <- server 20

Passive FTP :
command : client >1024 -> server 21
data : client >1024 -> server >1024


A quick summary of the pros and cons of active vs. passive FTP is also in
order:


Active FTP is beneficial to the FTP server admin, but detrimental to the
client side admin. The FTP server attempts to make connections to random high
ports on the client, which would almost certainly be blocked by a firewall on
the client side. Passive FTP is beneficial to the client, but detrimental to the
FTP server admin. The client will make both connections to the server, but one
of them will be to a random high port, which would almost certainly be blocked
by a firewall on the server side.


Luckily, there is somewhat of a compromise. Since admins running FTP servers
will need to make their servers accessible to the greatest number of clients,
they will almost certainly need to support passive FTP. The exposure of high
level ports on the server can be minimized by specifying a limited port range
for the FTP server to use. Thus, everything except for this range of ports can
be firewalled on the server side. While this doesn't eliminate all risk to the
server, it decreases it tremendously. See href="http://www.slacksite.com/other/ftp-appendix1.html">Appendix 1 for more
information.

References


An excellent reference on how various internet protocols work and the issues
involved in firewalling them can be found in the O'Reilly and Associates book,
Building Internet Firewalls, 2nd Ed, by Brent Chapman and Elizabeth
Zwicky.


Finally, the definitive reference on FTP would be RFC 959, which sets forth
the official specifications of the FTP protocol. RFCs can be downloaded from
numerous locations, including href="ftp://nic.merit.edu/documents/rfc/rfc0959.txt">ftp://nic.merit.edu/documents/rfc/rfc0959.txt.





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  5. 2004-07-30 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Oh my god - Apple is complaining about Competition!
  6. 2004-07-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] SysAdmin to SysAdmin: It's the documentation, stupi d!
  7. 2004-07-30 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] SysAdmin to SysAdmin: It's the documentation, stupi
  8. 2004-07-30 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] SysAdmin to SysAdmin: It's the documentation, stupid!
  9. 2004-07-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] SysAdmin to SysAdmin: It's the documentation, stupid!
  10. 2004-07-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] More Than 90% of Linux Systems Have Never Been Infected by a Viru s,
  11. 2004-07-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Dell Releases New Linux Workstations
  12. 2004-07-29 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] NIST says Data Encryption Standard now 'inadequate'
  13. 2004-07-27 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] Call for Volunteers - Software Freedom Day 2004
  14. 2004-07-27 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Call for Volunteers - Software Freedom Day 2004
  15. 2004-07-26 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] FW: Panda (fwd)
  16. 2004-07-26 From: "rc" <ray-pub-at-nyc.rr.com> Subject: [hangout] Media Oligarchies
  17. 2004-07-26 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Barcelona embracing open source
  18. 2004-07-26 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Hilton Hotels Business Solutions to Interoperate with Linux
  19. 2004-07-26 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> Subject: [hangout] FW: Panda
  20. 2004-07-26 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Active FTP vs. Passive FTP, a Definitive Explanation
  21. 2004-07-26 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] SCHOOLS FAIL OUR CHILDREN
  22. 2004-07-26 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] A comparison of Damn Small Linux, Knoppix and PCLinuxOS Linux Liv e
  23. 2004-07-25 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] Windows takes on multiple roles
  24. 2004-07-25 einker-at-gam.com Subject: [hangout] Windows takes on multiple roles
  25. 2004-07-25 einker-at-gam.com Subject: [hangout] Windows takes on multiple roles
  26. 2004-07-25 From: "Evan Inker" <einker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Business Week Online Story: How Microsoft Can Embrace Linux
  27. 2004-07-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] "No Subject" BUG in Kmail - Watch Out!!!!
  28. 2004-07-23 swd <sderrick-at-optonline.net> Subject: [hangout] "No Subject" BUG in Kmail - Watch Out!!!!
  29. 2004-07-23 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
  30. 2004-07-23 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
  31. 2004-07-23 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
  32. 2004-07-23 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
  33. 2004-07-23 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
  34. 2004-07-23 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
  35. 2004-07-23 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
  36. 2004-07-23 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] 5% of all PCs in 2004 shipped with Linux
  37. 2004-07-23 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
  38. 2004-07-23 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
  39. 2004-07-23 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
  40. 2004-07-22 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] Good and Bad news Tape - LUG/IP
  41. 2004-07-22 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] Good and Bad news Tape - LUG/IP
  42. 2004-07-22 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Good and Bad news Tape - LUG/IP
  43. 2004-07-22 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Good and Bad news Tape - LUG/IP
  44. 2004-07-22 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Good and Bad news Tape - LUG/IP
  45. 2004-07-20 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [Fwd: Volunteers Needed for New User Days]
  46. 2004-07-20 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Video 1 step forward
  47. 2004-07-19 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Video 1 step forward
  48. 2004-07-19 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] MS Trademark on Windows caused a settlement in favor of Lindows
  49. 2004-07-19 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Brooklyn Freedom
  50. 2004-07-19 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [Perl Jobs] Programmer Analyst, CT, Stamford
  51. 2004-07-19 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Suse 9.1 Review
  52. 2004-07-19 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Outreach
  53. 2004-07-19 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
  54. 2004-07-19 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
  55. 2004-07-19 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
  56. 2004-07-18 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
  57. 2004-07-18 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Installfest
  58. 2004-07-18 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
  59. 2004-07-18 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
  60. 2004-07-18 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
  61. 2004-07-18 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
  62. 2004-07-17 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] via voice
  63. 2004-07-16 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Fwd: [suse-security-announce] SUSE Security Announcement: php4 (SUSE-SA:2004:021) [krahmer-at-suse.de]
  64. 2004-07-16 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [DMCA_Discuss] Senators serious about DMCA fair use (fwd)
  65. 2004-07-16 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] great job Rob
  66. 2004-07-16 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] great job Rob
  67. 2004-07-16 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Subject: [hangout] great job Rob
  68. 2004-07-15 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Jobs in Brooklyn for real cash
  69. 2004-07-15 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Time for vengeance
  70. 2004-07-15 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Time for vengeance
  71. 2004-07-15 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
  72. 2004-07-15 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] Time for vengeance
  73. 2004-07-15 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Subject: [hangout] Time for vengeance
  74. 2004-07-15 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Subject: [hangout] leaving for the killarny
  75. 2004-07-15 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Subject: [hangout] Re: Since I haven't contributed in a while...
  76. 2004-07-15 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
  77. 2004-07-15 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
  78. 2004-07-15 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
  79. 2004-07-15 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
  80. 2004-07-15 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] dev null route windows
  81. 2004-07-15 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] dev null route windows
  82. 2004-07-15 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] dev null route windows
  83. 2004-07-15 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
  84. 2004-07-15 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] NYLXS inservice on Kerberos5, Cyrus SASL, OpenLDAP
  85. 2004-07-14 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Subject: [hangout] NYLXS inservice on Kerberos5, Cyrus SASL, OpenLDAP
  86. 2004-07-14 From: <akbar-at-jaal.org> Re: [hangout] [OT] Computer Available
  87. 2004-07-14 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
  88. 2004-07-14 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Hack-proof and crash resistant - have you discovered the OS world 's
  89. 2004-07-14 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] How Linux Boots (Article)
  90. 2004-07-14 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] [DMCA_Discuss] Vendor uses DMCA to bar third-party support contracts (fwd)
  91. 2004-07-14 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [DMCA_Discuss] Vendor uses DMCA to bar third-party support contracts
  92. 2004-07-14 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Trip to hear Ruben
  93. 2004-07-14 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Trip to hear Ruben
  94. 2004-07-14 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] FW:Infoworld: Is Content Control Constitutional? (fwd)
  95. 2004-07-14 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Fw: [Perl Jobs] Web Programmer for Mason-based e-commerce site (telecommute)
  96. 2004-07-14 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] dev null route windows
  97. 2004-07-14 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] FW:Infoworld: Is Content Control Constitutional? (fwd)
  98. 2004-07-14 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] [OT] Computer Available
  99. 2004-07-14 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [jobs-admin-at-perl.org: [Perl Jobs] mod_perl/TemplateToolkit/Oracle Web Developer (onsite), United States, NY, Rochester]
  100. 2004-07-13 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] FW:Infoworld: Is Content Control Constitutional? (fwd)
  101. 2004-07-13 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Re: [hangout] [OT] Computer Available
  102. 2004-07-13 From: <akbar-at-jaal.org> Subject: [hangout] [OT] Computer Available
  103. 2004-07-13 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Classes begin tonight
  104. 2004-07-13 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] Classes begin tonight
  105. 2004-07-13 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] DNS Question
  106. 2004-07-13 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> Subject: [hangout] FW: This Wed. Gnubies - Intro to Securing Your Email: Encryption
  107. 2004-07-13 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> FW: [hangout] Mike, take a look, NYDailyNews-Boroughs-Civic group
  108. 2004-07-13 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] DNS Question
  109. 2004-07-13 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] DNS Question
  110. 2004-07-12 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Mike, take a look, NYDailyNews-Boroughs-Civic groups go hi-tech with donated PCs
  111. 2004-07-12 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] DNS Question
  112. 2004-07-12 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Glimmer of hope in copyright measures
  113. 2004-07-12 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Nitix Autonomic Linux-based Server Operating System
  114. 2004-07-12 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Nitix Autonomic Linux-based Server Operating System
  115. 2004-07-12 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Free Software Day write up - again
  116. 2004-07-12 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Bettina_Faltermeier-at-mcgraw-hill.com: Publisher Partnership Invitatio
  117. 2004-07-11 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Technite
  118. 2004-07-11 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Technite
  119. 2004-07-11 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Technite
  120. 2004-07-10 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Subject: [hangout] Fwd: [TechForum] Gender Equity and F/OSS: New book submissions requested
  121. 2004-07-09 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] Commentary: Patched in 60 Seconds
  122. 2004-07-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Commentary: Why Dell is scurrying to cover its tracks in Linspire
  123. 2004-07-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Commentary: Patched in 60 Seconds
  124. 2004-07-09 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] Commentary: Patched in 60 Seconds
  125. 2004-07-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Commentary: Patched in 60 Seconds
  126. 2004-07-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] UNIGROUP Field Trip Meeting: 15-JUL-2004: Solaris 10 Launch Event
  127. 2004-07-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Getting to Know Linux Class - July 24, 2004 (NYPC)
  128. 2004-07-09 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] [Fwd: [wwwac] HOPE 2600 This weekend (NYC)] (fwd)
  129. 2004-07-09 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] [Fwd: [wwwac] HOPE 2600 This weekend (NYC)] (fwd)
  130. 2004-07-08 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] who is our contact at novell
  131. 2004-07-08 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Free 10 GB Novell Resource Kit: Get SuSE Linux for
  132. 2004-07-08 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Free 10 GB Novell Resource Kit: Get SuSE Linux for Free
  133. 2004-07-08 Jacek Blizinski <azidog-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] Free 10 GB Novell Resource Kit: Get SuSE Linux =?iso-8859-1?q?for=09Free?=
  134. 2004-07-08 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [Fwd: [wwwac] HOPE 2600 This weekend (NYC)] (fwd)
  135. 2004-07-08 Jacek Blizinski <azidog-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] Free 10 GB Novell Resource Kit: Get SuSE Linux for Free
  136. 2004-07-08 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Anti-Spam Web Site (Great Info)
  137. 2004-07-08 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Subject: [hangout] who is our contact at novell
  138. 2004-07-08 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] New 1G Email Service Available - www.walla.com
  139. 2004-07-08 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Free 10 GB Novell Resource Kit: Get SuSE Linux for Free
  140. 2004-07-08 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Video Recording
  141. 2004-07-08 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Video Recording
  142. 2004-07-08 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Video Recording
  143. 2004-07-07 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Re: Linix Users Group/In Princeton
  144. 2004-07-07 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] NYLXS Trip to Princeton
  145. 2004-07-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Re: Linix Users Group/In Princeton
  146. 2004-07-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] In-service
  147. 2004-07-07 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Software Freedom Day Contribution
  148. 2004-07-07 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Re: [hangout] In-service
  149. 2004-07-07 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> Subject: [hangout] In-service
  150. 2004-07-07 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Dell to Offer Linux-Loaded PCs in Europe (fwd)
  151. 2004-07-06 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Re: [hangout] changing date of ldap inservice
  152. 2004-07-06 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] changing date of ldap inservice
  153. 2004-07-06 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Subject: [hangout] changing date of ldap inservice
  154. 2004-07-06 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Linux, Still an Awkward Alternative (Washington Post)
  155. 2004-07-06 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Spam Assasin is a COMPLETE Piece of ...
  156. 2004-07-06 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Spam Assasin is a COMPLETE Piece of ...
  157. 2004-07-05 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [Fwd: Re: [politics] France has only 800 soldiers in Afghanistan]
  158. 2004-07-04 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] blowing up Small Schools
  159. 2004-07-04 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] In Service Program
  160. 2004-07-02 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Hunter College has Linux Courses!
  161. 2004-07-02 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] In Service Program
  162. 2004-07-02 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Defending Small Schools
  163. 2004-07-02 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [hangout] Defending Small Schools
  164. 2004-07-01 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] Defending Small Schools
  165. 2004-07-01 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Defending Small Schools
  166. 2004-07-01 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Subject: [hangout] forwarding mail
  167. 2004-07-12 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [jays-at-panix.com: [orgcom-mgmt] puck info for orgcom mailing list (fwd)

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