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DATE 2004-07-14
FROM From: "Inker, Evan"
SUBJECT Subject: [hangout] How Linux Boots (Article)
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Linux.com
The Enterprise Linux Resource
http://www.linux.com/

Title How Linux boots
Date 2004.07.13 8:01
Author StoneLion
Topic
http://www.linux.com/article.pl?sid=04/06/23/1734235

This articles teaches you how a Linux system starts, or boots -- that is,
how the kernel gets into memory and how the regular system processes get
started.


This article is excerpted from the newly published book How
270356> Linux Works.

As it turns out, there isn't much to the boot process:

1. A boot loader finds the kernel image on the disk, loads it into
memory, and starts it.

2. The kernel initializes the devices and its drivers.

3. The kernel mounts the root filesystem.

4. The kernel starts a program called init.

5. init sets the rest of the processes in motion.

6. The last processes that init starts as part of the boot sequence
allow you to log in.

Identifying each stage of the boot process is invaluable in fixing boot
problems and understanding the system as a whole. To start, zero in on the
boot loader, which is the initial screen or prompt you get after the
computer does its power-on self-test, asking which operating system to run.
After you make a choice, the boot loader runs the Linux kernel, handing
control of the system to the kernel.

There is a detailed discussion of the kernel elsewhere in this book from
which this article is excerpted. This article covers the kernel
initialization stage, the stage when the kernel prints a bunch of messages
about the hardware present on the system. The kernel starts init just after
it displays a message proclaiming that the kernel has mounted the root
filesystem:

VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem) readonly.

Soon after, you will see a message about init starting, followed by system
service startup messages, and finally you get a login prompt of some sort.

NOTE On Red Hat Linux, the init note is especially obvious, because it
"welcomes" you to "Red Hat Linux." All messages thereafter show success or
failure in brackets at the right-hand side of the screen.

Most of this chapter deals with init, because it is the part of the boot
sequence where you have the most control.

init

There is nothing special about init. It is a program just like any other on
the Linux system, and you'll find it in /sbin along with other system
binaries. The main purpose of init is to start and stop other programs in a
particular sequence. All you have to know is how this sequence works.

There are a few different variations, but most Linux distributions use the
System V style discussed here. Some distributions use a simpler version that
resembles the BSD init, but you are unlikely to encounter this.

Runlevels

At any given time on a Linux system, a certain base set of processes is
running. This state of the machine is called its runlevel, and it is denoted
with a number from 0 through 6. The system spends most of its time in a
single runlevel. However, when you shut the machine down, init switches to a
different runlevel in order to terminate the system services in an orderly
fashion and to tell the kernel to stop. Yet another runlevel is for
single-user mode, discussed later.

The easiest way to get a handle on runlevels is to examine the init
configuration file, /etc/inittab. Look for a line like the following:

id:5:initdefault:

This line means that the default runlevel on the system is 5. All lines in
the inittab file take this form, with four fields separated by colons
occurring in the following order:

* A unique identifier (a short string, such as id in the preceding
example)

* The applicable runlevel number(s)

* The action that init should take (in the preceding example, the
action is to set the default runlevel to 5)

* A command to execute (optional)


There is no command to execute in the preceding initdefault example because
a command doesn't make sense in the context of setting the default runlevel.
Look a little further down in inittab, until you see a line like this:

l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 5

This line triggers most of the system configuration and services through the
rc*.d and init.d directories. You can see that init is set to execute a
command called /etc/rc.d/rc 5 when in runlevel 5. The wait action tells when
and how init runs the command: run rc 5 once when entering runlevel 5, and
then wait for this command to finish before doing anything else.

There are several different actions in addition to initdefault and wait,
especially pertaining to power management, and the inittab(5) manual page
tells you all about them. The ones that you're most likely to encounter are
explained in the following sections.

respawn

The respawn action causes init to run the command that follows, and if the
command finishes executing, to run it again. You're likely to see something
similar to this line in your inittab file:

1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1

The getty programs provide login prompts. The preceding line is for the
first virtual console (/dev/tty1), the one you see when you press ALT-F1 or
CONTROL-ALT-F1. The respawn action brings the login prompt back after you
log out.

ctrlaltdel

The ctrlaltdel action controls what the system does when you press
CONTROL-ALT-DELETE on a virtual console. On most systems, this is some sort
of reboot command using the shutdown command.

sysinit

The sysinit action is the very first thing that init should run when it
starts up, before entering any runlevels.

How processes in runlevels start

You are now ready to learn how init starts the system services, just before
it lets you log in. Recall this inittab line from earlier:

l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 5

This small line triggers many other programs. rc stands for run commands,
and you will hear people refer to the commands as scripts, programs, or
services. So, where are these commands, anyway?

For runlevel 5, in this example, the commands are probably either in
/etc/rc.d/rc5.d or /etc/rc5.d. Runlevel 1 uses rc1.d, runlevel 2 uses rc2.d,
and so on. You might find the following items in the rc5.d directory:

S10sysklogd S20ppp S99gpm

S12kerneld S25netstd_nfs S99httpd

S15netstd_init S30netstd_misc S99rmnologin

S18netbase S45pcmcia S99sshd

S20acct S89atd

S20logoutd S89cron

The rc 5 command starts programs in this runlevel directory by running the
following commands:

S10sysklogd start

S12kerneld start

S15netstd_init start

S18netbase start

...

S99sshd start

Notice the start argument in each command. The S in a command name means
that the command should run in start mode, and the number (00 through 99)
determines where in the sequence rc starts the command.

The rc*.d commands are usually shell scripts that start programs in /sbin or
/usr/sbin. Normally, you can figure out what one of the commands actually
does by looking at the script with less or another pager program.

You can start one of these services by hand. For example, if you want to
start the httpd Web server program manually, run S99httpd start. Similarly,
if you ever need to kill one of the services when the machine is on, you can
run the command in the rc*.d directory with the stop argument (S99httpd
stop, for instance).

Some rc*.d directories contain commands that start with K (for "kill," or
stop mode). In this case, rc runs the command with the stop argument instead
of start. You are most likely to encounter K commands in runlevels that shut
the system down.


Adding and removing services

If you want to add, delete, or modify services in the rc*.d directories, you
need to take a closer look at the files inside. A long listing reveals a
structure like this:

lrwxrwxrwx . . . S10sysklogd -> ../init.d/sysklogd

lrwxrwxrwx . . . S12kerneld -> ../init.d/kerneld

lrwxrwxrwx . . . S15netstd_init -> ../init.d/netstd_init

lrwxrwxrwx . . . S18netbase -> ../init.d/netbase

...

The commands in an rc*.d directory are actually symbolic links to files in
an init.d directory, usually in /etc or /etc/rc.d. Linux distributions
contain these links so that they can use the same startup scripts for all
runlevels. This convention is by no means a requirement, but it often makes
organization a little easier.

To prevent one of the commands in the init.d directory from running in a
particular runlevel, you might think of removing the symbolic link in the
appropriate rc*.d directory. This does work, but if you make a mistake and
ever need to put the link back in place, you might have trouble remembering
the exact name of the link. Therefore, you shouldn't remove links in the
rc*.d directories, but rather, add an underscore (_) to the beginning of the
link name like this:

mv S99httpd _S99httpd

At boot time, rc ignores _S99httpd because it doesn't start with S or K.
Furthermore, the original name is still obvious, and you have quick access
to the command if you're in a pinch and need to start it by hand.

To add a service, you must create a script like the others in the init.d
directory and then make a symbolic link in the correct rc*.d directory. The
easiest way to write a script is to examine the scripts already in init.d,
make a copy of one that you understand, and modify the copy.

When adding a service, make sure that you choose an appropriate place in the
boot sequence to start the service. If the service starts too soon, it may
not work, due to a dependency on some other service. For non-essential
services, most systems administrators prefer numbers in the 90s, after most
of the services that came with the system.

Linux distributions usually come with a command to enable and disable
services in the rc*.d directories. For example, in Debian, the command is
update-rc.d, and in Red Hat Linux, the command is chkconfig. Graphical user
interfaces are also available. Using these programs helps keep the startup
directories consistent and helps with upgrades.

HINT: One of the most common Linux installation problems is an improperly
configured XFree86 server that flicks on and off, making the system unusable
on console. To stop this behavior, boot into single-user mode and alter your
runlevel or runlevel services. Look for something containing xdm, gdm, or
kdm in your rc*.d directories, or your /etc/inittab.

Controlling init

Occasionally, you need to give init a little kick to tell it to switch
runlevels, to re-read the inittab file, or just to shut down the system.
Because init is always the first process on a system, its process ID is
always 1.

You can control init with telinit. For example, if you want to switch to
runlevel 3, use this command:

telinit 3

When switching runlevels, init tries to kill off any processes that aren't
in the inittab file for the new runlevel. Therefore, you should be careful
about changing runlevels.

When you need to add or remove respawning jobs or make any other change to
the inittab file, you must tell init about the change and cause it to
re-read the file. Some people use kill -HUP 1 to tell init to do this. This
traditional method works on most versions of Unix, as long as you type it
correctly. However, you can also run this telinit command:

telinit q

You can also use telinit s to switch to single-user mode.

Shutting down

init also controls how the system shuts down and reboots. The proper way to
shut down a Linux machine is to use the shutdown command.

There are two basic ways to use shutdown. If you halt the system, it shuts
the machine down and keeps it down. To make the machine halt immediately,
use this command:

shutdown -h now

On most modern machines with reasonably recent versions of Linux, a halt
cuts the power to the machine. You can also reboot the machine. For a
reboot, use -r instead of -h.

The shutdown process takes several seconds. You should never reset or power
off a machine during this stage.

In the preceding example, now is the time to shut down. This argument is
mandatory, but there are many ways of specifying it. If you want the machine
to go down sometime in the future, one way is to use +n, where n is the
number of minutes shutdown should wait before doing its work. For other
options, look at the shutdown(8) manual page.

To make the system reboot in 10 minutes, run this command:

shutdown -r +10

On Linux, shutdown notifies anyone logged on that the machine is going down,
but it does little real work. If you specify a time other than now, shutdown
creates a file called /etc/nologin. When this file is present, the system
prohibits logins by anyone except the superuser.

When system shutdown time finally arrives, shutdown tells init to switch to
runlevel 0 for a halt and runlevel 6 for a reboot. When init enters runlevel
0 or 6, all of the following takes place, which you can verify by looking at
the scripts inside rc0.d and rc6.d:

1. init kills every process that it can (as it would when switching to
any other runlevel).

* The initial rc0.d/rc6.d commands run, locking system files into
place and making other preparations for shutdown.

* The next rc0.d/rc6.d commands unmount all filesystems other than the
root.

* Further rc0.d/rc6.d commands remount the root filesystem read-only.

* Still more rc0.d/rc6.d commands write all buffered data out to the
filesystem with the sync program.

* The final rc0.d/rc6.d commands tell the kernel to reboot or stop
with the reboot, halt, or poweroff program.


The reboot and halt programs behave differently for each runlevel,
potentially causing confusion. By default, these programs call shutdown with
the -r or -h options, but if the system is already at the halt or reboot
runlevel, the programs tell the kernel to shut itself off immediately. If
you really want to shut your machine down in a hurry (disregarding any
possible damage from a disorderly shutdown), use the -f option.

Links

_____


1. "How Linux Works" -
http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=2181&sourceid=39391960&isbn=15932
70356



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------_=_NextPart_001_01C46996.B3B2B1E0
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Transfer-Encoding: quoted-printable




Message


=

Linux.com
The Enterprise Linux=20
Resource

http://www.linux.com/

=


















BLE>http://www.linux.com/article.pl?sid=3D04/06/23/1734235=
=20

This articles teaches you how a Linux system starts, or boots -- that is=
, how=20
the kernel gets into memory and how the regular system processes get=20
started.



This article is excerpted from the newly published book href=3D"http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=3D2181&sourceid=3D39=
391960&isbn=3D1593270356">How=20
Linux Works.


As it turns out, there isn't much to the boot process:



  1. A boot loader finds the kernel image on the disk, loads it into memor=
    y,=20
    and starts it.=20
  2. The kernel initializes the devices and its drivers.=20
  3. The kernel mounts the root filesystem.=20
  4. The kernel starts a program called init.=20
  5. init sets the rest of the processes in motion.=20
  6. The last processes that init starts as part of the boot sequence allo=
    w you=20
    to log in.

Identifying each stage of the boot process is invaluable in fixing boot=
problems and understanding the system as a whole. To start, zero in on the=
boot=20
loader, which is the initial screen or prompt you get after the computer do=
es=20
its power-on self-test, asking which operating system to run. After you mak=
e a=20
choice, the boot loader runs the Linux kernel, handing control of the syste=
m to=20
the kernel.


There is a detailed discussion of the kernel elsewhere in this book from=
which this article is excerpted. This article covers the kernel initializa=
tion=20
stage, the stage when the kernel prints a bunch of messages about the hardw=
are=20
present on the system. The kernel starts init just after it=20
displays a message proclaiming that the kernel has mounted the root filesys=
tem:=20


VFS: Mounted root (ext2 filesystem) readonly.


Soon after, you will see a message about init starting, fol=
lowed=20
by system service startup messages, and finally you get a login prompt of s=
ome=20
sort.


NOTE On Red Hat Linux, the init note is especiall=
y=20
obvious, because it "welcomes" you to "Red Hat Linux." All messages thereaf=
ter=20
show success or failure in brackets at the right-hand side of the screen.=


Most of this chapter deals with init, because it is the par=
t of=20
the boot sequence where you have the most control.

init>=20

There is nothing special about init. It is a program just l=
ike=20
any other on the Linux system, and you'll find it in /sbin along with other=
system binaries. The main purpose of init is to start and sto=
p=20
other programs in a particular sequence. All you have to know is how this=
sequence works.


There are a few different variations, but most Linux distributions use t=
he=20
System V style discussed here. Some distributions use a simpler version tha=
t=20
resembles the BSD init, but you are unlikely to encounter this.


Runlevels


At any given time on a Linux system, a certain base set of processes is=
running. This state of the machine is called its runlevel, and it i=
s=20
denoted with a number from 0 through 6. The system spends most of its time =
in a=20
single runlevel. However, when you shut the machine down, init=
switches to a different runlevel in order to terminate the system services=
in an=20
orderly fashion and to tell the kernel to stop. Yet another runlevel is for=
single-user mode, discussed later.


The easiest way to get a handle on runlevels is to examine the init=20
configuration file, /etc/inittab. Look for a line like the following:


id:5:initdefault:


This line means that the default runlevel on the system is 5. All lines =
in=20
the inittab file take this form, with four fields separated by colons occur=
ring=20
in the following order:


  • A unique identifier (a short string, such as id in the=20
    preceding example)=20
  • The applicable runlevel number(s)=20
  • The action that init should take (in the preceding example=
    , the=20
    action is to set the default runlevel to 5)=20
  • A command to execute (optional)=20

    There is no command to execute in the preceding initdefault=
    example because a command doesn't make sense in the context of setting the=
    default runlevel. Look a little further down in inittab, until you see a l=
    ine=20
    like this:


    l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 5


    This line triggers most of the system configuration and services through=
    the=20
    rc*.d and init.d directories. You can see that init is set to=
    execute a command called /etc/rc.d/rc 5 when in runlevel 5. The=20
    wait action tells when and how init runs the comm=
    and:=20
    run rc 5 once when entering runlevel 5, and then wait for this=
    command to finish before doing anything else.


    There are several different actions in addition to initdefaultDE>=20
    and wait, especially pertaining to power management, and the=
    inittab(5) manual page tells you all about them. The ones that you're most=
    likely to encounter are explained in the following sections.


    respawn


    The respawn action causes init to run the command that foll=
    ows,=20
    and if the command finishes executing, to run it again. You're likely to se=
    e=20
    something similar to this line in your inittab file:


    1:2345:respawn:/sbin/mingetty tty1


    The getty programs provide login prompts. The preceding lin=
    e is=20
    for the first virtual console (/dev/tty1), the one you see when you press A=
    LT-F1=20
    or CONTROL-ALT-F1. The respawn action brings the login prompt =
    back=20
    after you log out.


    ctrlaltdel


    The ctrlaltdel action controls what the system does when yo=
    u=20
    press CONTROL-ALT-DELETE on a virtual console. On most systems, this is som=
    e=20
    sort of reboot command using the shutdown command.


    sysinit


    The sysinit action is the very first thing that=20
    init should run when it starts up, before entering any runleve=
    ls.=20


    How processes in runlevels start


    You are now ready to learn how init starts the system services, just bef=
    ore=20
    it lets you log in. Recall this inittab line from earlier:


    l5:5:wait:/etc/rc.d/rc 5


    This small line triggers many other programs. rc stands for=
    run commands, and you will hear people refer to the commands as scr=
    ipts,=20
    programs, or services. So, where are these commands, anyway?


    For runlevel 5, in this example, the commands are probably either in=20
    /etc/rc.d/rc5.d or /etc/rc5.d. Runlevel 1 uses rc1.d, runlevel 2 uses rc2.d=
    , and=20
    so on. You might find the following items in the rc5.d directory:

    =
    S10sysklogd S20ppp S99gpm
    S12kerneld S25netstd_nfs S99httpd
    S15netstd_init S30netstd_misc S99rmnologin
    S18netbase S45pcmcia S99sshd
    S20acct S89atd
    S20logoutd S89cron

    The rc 5 command starts programs in this runlevel directory=
    by=20
    running the following commands:

    S10sysklogd start
    S12kerneld start
    S15netstd_init start
    S18netbase start
    ...
    S99sshd start

    Notice the start argument in each command. The SE> in=20
    a command name means that the command should run in start mode, and the num=
    ber=20
    (00 through 99) determines where in the sequence rc starts the=
    command.


    The rc*.d commands are usually shell scripts that start programs in /sbi=
    n or=20
    /usr/sbin. Normally, you can figure out what one of the commands actually d=
    oes=20
    by looking at the script with less or another pager program. <=
    /P>

    You can start one of these services by hand. For example, if you want to=
    start the httpd Web server program manually, run S99htt=
    pd=20
    start
    . Similarly, if you ever need to kill one of the services when =
    the=20
    machine is on, you can run the command in the rc*.d directory with the=20
    stop argument (S99httpd stop, for instance).


    Some rc*.d directories contain commands that start with K (=
    for=20
    "kill," or stop mode). In this case, rc runs the command with =
    the=20
    stop argument instead of start. You are most like=
    ly to=20
    encounter K commands in runlevels that shut the system down.=

    Adding and removing services


    If you want to add, delete, or modify services in the rc*.d directories,=
    you=20
    need to take a closer look at the files inside. A long listing reveals a=20
    structure like this:

    lrwxrwxrwx . . . S10sysklogd -> ../init.d/=
    sysklogd
    lrwxrwxrwx . . . S12kerneld -> ../init.d/kerneld
    lrwxrwxrwx . . . S15netstd_init -> ../init.d/netstd_init
    lrwxrwxrwx . . . S18netbase -> ../init.d/netbase
    ...

    The commands in an rc*.d directory are actually symbolic links to files =
    in an=20
    init.d directory, usually in /etc or /etc/rc.d. Linux distributions contain=
    these links so that they can use the same startup scripts for all runlevel=
    s.=20
    This convention is by no means a requirement, but it often makes organizati=
    on a=20
    little easier.


    To prevent one of the commands in the init.d directory from running in a=
    particular runlevel, you might think of removing the symbolic link in the=
    appropriate rc*.d directory. This does work, but if you make a mistake and=
    ever=20
    need to put the link back in place, you might have trouble remembering the =
    exact=20
    name of the link. Therefore, you shouldn't remove links in the rc*.d=20
    directories, but rather, add an underscore (_) to the beginning of the link=
    name=20
    like this:


    mv S99httpd _S99httpd


    At boot time, rc ignores _S99httpd because it=
    doesn't start with S or K. Furthermore, the orig=
    inal=20
    name is still obvious, and you have quick access to the command if you're i=
    n a=20
    pinch and need to start it by hand.


    To add a service, you must create a script like the others in the init.d=
    directory and then make a symbolic link in the correct rc*.d directory. Th=
    e=20
    easiest way to write a script is to examine the scripts already in init.d, =
    make=20
    a copy of one that you understand, and modify the copy.


    When adding a service, make sure that you choose an appropriate place in=
    the=20
    boot sequence to start the service. If the service starts too soon, it may =
    not=20
    work, due to a dependency on some other service. For non-essential services=
    ,=20
    most systems administrators prefer numbers in the 90s, after most of the=20
    services that came with the system.


    Linux distributions usually come with a command to enable and disable=20
    services in the rc*.d directories. For example, in Debian, the command is=
    update-rc.d, and in Red Hat Linux, the command is=20
    chkconfig. Graphical user interfaces are also available. Using=
    these programs helps keep the startup directories consistent and helps wit=
    h=20
    upgrades.


    HINT: One of the most common Linux installation problems is an=
    improperly configured XFree86 server that flicks on and off, making the sy=
    stem=20
    unusable on console. To stop this behavior, boot into single-user mode and =
    alter=20
    your runlevel or runlevel services. Look for something containing
    xdm>,=20
    gdm, or kdm in your rc*.d directories, or your /etc/inittab.=


    Controlling init


    Occasionally, you need to give init a little kick to tell i=
    t to=20
    switch runlevels, to re-read the inittab file, or just to shut down the sys=
    tem.=20
    Because init is always the first process on a system, its process ID is alw=
    ays=20
    1.


    You can control init with telinit. For example=
    , if=20
    you want to switch to runlevel 3, use this command:


    telinit 3


    When switching runlevels, init tries to kill off any proces=
    ses=20
    that aren't in the inittab file for the new runlevel. Therefore, you should=
    be=20
    careful about changing runlevels.


    When you need to add or remove respawning jobs or make any other change =
    to=20
    the inittab file, you must tell init about the change and caus=
    e it=20
    to re-read the file. Some people use kill -HUP 1 to tell=20
    init to do this. This traditional method works on most version=
    s of=20
    Unix, as long as you type it correctly. However, you can also run this=20
    telinit command:


    telinit q


    You can also use telinit s to switch to single-user mode. <=
    /P>

    Shutting down


    init also controls how the system shuts down and reboots. T=
    he=20
    proper way to shut down a Linux machine is to use the shutdown=
    command.


    There are two basic ways to use shutdown. If you halt the system,=
    it=20
    shuts the machine down and keeps it down. To make the machine halt immediat=
    ely,=20
    use this command:


    shutdown -h now


    On most modern machines with reasonably recent versions of Linux, a halt=
    cuts=20
    the power to the machine. You can also reboot the machine. For a reb=
    oot,=20
    use -r instead of -h.


    The shutdown process takes several seconds. You should never reset or po=
    wer=20
    off a machine during this stage.


    In the preceding example, now is the time to shut down. Thi=
    s=20
    argument is mandatory, but there are many ways of specifying it. If you wan=
    t the=20
    machine to go down sometime in the future, one way is to use +n, whe=
    re=20
    n is the number of minutes shutdown should wait before doing its wor=
    k.=20
    For other options, look at the shutdown(8) manual page.


    To make the system reboot in 10 minutes, run this command:


    shutdown -r +10


    On Linux, shutdown notifies anyone logged on that the machi=
    ne is=20
    going down, but it does little real work. If you specify a time other than=
    now, shutdown creates a file called /etc/nologin=
    . When=20
    this file is present, the system prohibits logins by anyone except the=20
    superuser.


    When system shutdown time finally arrives, shutdown tells=
    init to switch to runlevel 0 for a halt and runlevel 6 for a=
    reboot. When init enters runlevel 0 or 6, all of the following takes place=
    ,=20
    which you can verify by looking at the scripts inside rc0.d and rc6.d:



    1. init kills every process that it can (as it would when=
      switching to any other runlevel).


  • The initial rc0.d/rc6.d commands run, locking system files into place a=
    nd=20
    making other preparations for shutdown.=20
  • The next rc0.d/rc6.d commands unmount all filesystems other than the ro=
    ot.=20
  • Further rc0.d/rc6.d commands remount the root filesystem read-only.=20
  • Still more rc0.d/rc6.d commands write all buffered data out to the=20
    filesystem with the sync program.=20
  • The final rc0.d/rc6.d commands tell the kernel to reboot or stop with t=
    he=20
    reboot, halt, or poweroff program.=

    The reboot and halt programs behave different=
    ly for=20
    each runlevel, potentially causing confusion. By default, these programs ca=
    ll=20
    shutdown with the -r or -h options, =
    but=20
    if the system is already at the halt or reboot runlevel, the programs tell =
    the=20
    kernel to shut itself off immediately. If you really want to shut your mach=
    ine=20
    down in a hurry (disregarding any possible damage from a disorderly shutdow=
    n),=20
    use the -f option.



  • Title    How Linux boots
    Date    2004.07.13 8:01
    Author    StoneLion
    Topic    href=3D"http://www.linux.com/search.pl?topic=3D">





    Links





    1. "How Linux Works" -=20
      http://service.bfast.com/bfast/click?bfmid=3D2181&sourceid=3D39391960=
      &isbn=3D1593270356=20
    =




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    ------_=_NextPart_001_01C46996.B3B2B1E0--
    ____________________________
    NYLXS: New Yorker Free Software Users Scene
    Fair Use -
    because it's either fair use or useless....
    NYLXS is a trademark of NYLXS, Inc

    1. 2004-07-31 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Re: [NMLUG] Re: legal music downloads?
    2. 2004-07-31 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] More Than 90% of Linux Systems Have Never Been
    3. 2004-07-30 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Oh my god - Apple is complaining about Competition!
    4. 2004-07-30 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [Fwd: Submit Your Next Press Release to InternetNewsBureau and
    5. 2004-07-30 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Oh my god - Apple is complaining about Competition!
    6. 2004-07-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] SysAdmin to SysAdmin: It's the documentation, stupi d!
    7. 2004-07-30 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] SysAdmin to SysAdmin: It's the documentation, stupi
    8. 2004-07-30 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] SysAdmin to SysAdmin: It's the documentation, stupid!
    9. 2004-07-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] SysAdmin to SysAdmin: It's the documentation, stupid!
    10. 2004-07-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] More Than 90% of Linux Systems Have Never Been Infected by a Viru s,
    11. 2004-07-30 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Dell Releases New Linux Workstations
    12. 2004-07-29 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] NIST says Data Encryption Standard now 'inadequate'
    13. 2004-07-27 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] Call for Volunteers - Software Freedom Day 2004
    14. 2004-07-27 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Call for Volunteers - Software Freedom Day 2004
    15. 2004-07-26 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] FW: Panda (fwd)
    16. 2004-07-26 From: "rc" <ray-pub-at-nyc.rr.com> Subject: [hangout] Media Oligarchies
    17. 2004-07-26 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Barcelona embracing open source
    18. 2004-07-26 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Hilton Hotels Business Solutions to Interoperate with Linux
    19. 2004-07-26 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> Subject: [hangout] FW: Panda
    20. 2004-07-26 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Active FTP vs. Passive FTP, a Definitive Explanation
    21. 2004-07-26 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] SCHOOLS FAIL OUR CHILDREN
    22. 2004-07-26 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] A comparison of Damn Small Linux, Knoppix and PCLinuxOS Linux Liv e
    23. 2004-07-25 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] Windows takes on multiple roles
    24. 2004-07-25 einker-at-gam.com Subject: [hangout] Windows takes on multiple roles
    25. 2004-07-25 einker-at-gam.com Subject: [hangout] Windows takes on multiple roles
    26. 2004-07-25 From: "Evan Inker" <einker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Business Week Online Story: How Microsoft Can Embrace Linux
    27. 2004-07-23 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] "No Subject" BUG in Kmail - Watch Out!!!!
    28. 2004-07-23 swd <sderrick-at-optonline.net> Subject: [hangout] "No Subject" BUG in Kmail - Watch Out!!!!
    29. 2004-07-23 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
    30. 2004-07-23 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
    31. 2004-07-23 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
    32. 2004-07-23 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
    33. 2004-07-23 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
    34. 2004-07-23 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
    35. 2004-07-23 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
    36. 2004-07-23 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] 5% of all PCs in 2004 shipped with Linux
    37. 2004-07-23 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
    38. 2004-07-23 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
    39. 2004-07-23 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] RAM for Suse 9.1
    40. 2004-07-22 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] Good and Bad news Tape - LUG/IP
    41. 2004-07-22 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] Good and Bad news Tape - LUG/IP
    42. 2004-07-22 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Good and Bad news Tape - LUG/IP
    43. 2004-07-22 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Good and Bad news Tape - LUG/IP
    44. 2004-07-22 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Good and Bad news Tape - LUG/IP
    45. 2004-07-20 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [Fwd: Volunteers Needed for New User Days]
    46. 2004-07-20 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Video 1 step forward
    47. 2004-07-19 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Video 1 step forward
    48. 2004-07-19 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] MS Trademark on Windows caused a settlement in favor of Lindows
    49. 2004-07-19 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Brooklyn Freedom
    50. 2004-07-19 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [Perl Jobs] Programmer Analyst, CT, Stamford
    51. 2004-07-19 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Suse 9.1 Review
    52. 2004-07-19 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Outreach
    53. 2004-07-19 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
    54. 2004-07-19 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
    55. 2004-07-19 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
    56. 2004-07-18 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
    57. 2004-07-18 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Installfest
    58. 2004-07-18 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
    59. 2004-07-18 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
    60. 2004-07-18 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
    61. 2004-07-18 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Help Camera Problems
    62. 2004-07-17 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] via voice
    63. 2004-07-16 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Fwd: [suse-security-announce] SUSE Security Announcement: php4 (SUSE-SA:2004:021) [krahmer-at-suse.de]
    64. 2004-07-16 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [DMCA_Discuss] Senators serious about DMCA fair use (fwd)
    65. 2004-07-16 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] great job Rob
    66. 2004-07-16 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] great job Rob
    67. 2004-07-16 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Subject: [hangout] great job Rob
    68. 2004-07-15 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Jobs in Brooklyn for real cash
    69. 2004-07-15 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Time for vengeance
    70. 2004-07-15 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Time for vengeance
    71. 2004-07-15 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
    72. 2004-07-15 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] Time for vengeance
    73. 2004-07-15 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Subject: [hangout] Time for vengeance
    74. 2004-07-15 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Subject: [hangout] leaving for the killarny
    75. 2004-07-15 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Subject: [hangout] Re: Since I haven't contributed in a while...
    76. 2004-07-15 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
    77. 2004-07-15 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
    78. 2004-07-15 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
    79. 2004-07-15 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
    80. 2004-07-15 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] dev null route windows
    81. 2004-07-15 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] dev null route windows
    82. 2004-07-15 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] dev null route windows
    83. 2004-07-15 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
    84. 2004-07-15 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] NYLXS inservice on Kerberos5, Cyrus SASL, OpenLDAP
    85. 2004-07-14 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Subject: [hangout] NYLXS inservice on Kerberos5, Cyrus SASL, OpenLDAP
    86. 2004-07-14 From: <akbar-at-jaal.org> Re: [hangout] [OT] Computer Available
    87. 2004-07-14 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] dev null route windows
    88. 2004-07-14 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Hack-proof and crash resistant - have you discovered the OS world 's
    89. 2004-07-14 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] How Linux Boots (Article)
    90. 2004-07-14 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] [DMCA_Discuss] Vendor uses DMCA to bar third-party support contracts (fwd)
    91. 2004-07-14 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [DMCA_Discuss] Vendor uses DMCA to bar third-party support contracts
    92. 2004-07-14 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Trip to hear Ruben
    93. 2004-07-14 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Trip to hear Ruben
    94. 2004-07-14 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] FW:Infoworld: Is Content Control Constitutional? (fwd)
    95. 2004-07-14 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Fw: [Perl Jobs] Web Programmer for Mason-based e-commerce site (telecommute)
    96. 2004-07-14 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] dev null route windows
    97. 2004-07-14 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] FW:Infoworld: Is Content Control Constitutional? (fwd)
    98. 2004-07-14 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] [OT] Computer Available
    99. 2004-07-14 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [jobs-admin-at-perl.org: [Perl Jobs] mod_perl/TemplateToolkit/Oracle Web Developer (onsite), United States, NY, Rochester]
    100. 2004-07-13 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] FW:Infoworld: Is Content Control Constitutional? (fwd)
    101. 2004-07-13 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Re: [hangout] [OT] Computer Available
    102. 2004-07-13 From: <akbar-at-jaal.org> Subject: [hangout] [OT] Computer Available
    103. 2004-07-13 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Classes begin tonight
    104. 2004-07-13 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] Classes begin tonight
    105. 2004-07-13 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] DNS Question
    106. 2004-07-13 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> Subject: [hangout] FW: This Wed. Gnubies - Intro to Securing Your Email: Encryption
    107. 2004-07-13 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> FW: [hangout] Mike, take a look, NYDailyNews-Boroughs-Civic group
    108. 2004-07-13 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] DNS Question
    109. 2004-07-13 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] DNS Question
    110. 2004-07-12 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Mike, take a look, NYDailyNews-Boroughs-Civic groups go hi-tech with donated PCs
    111. 2004-07-12 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] DNS Question
    112. 2004-07-12 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Glimmer of hope in copyright measures
    113. 2004-07-12 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Nitix Autonomic Linux-based Server Operating System
    114. 2004-07-12 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Nitix Autonomic Linux-based Server Operating System
    115. 2004-07-12 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Free Software Day write up - again
    116. 2004-07-12 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Bettina_Faltermeier-at-mcgraw-hill.com: Publisher Partnership Invitatio
    117. 2004-07-11 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Technite
    118. 2004-07-11 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Technite
    119. 2004-07-11 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Technite
    120. 2004-07-10 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Subject: [hangout] Fwd: [TechForum] Gender Equity and F/OSS: New book submissions requested
    121. 2004-07-09 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] Commentary: Patched in 60 Seconds
    122. 2004-07-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Commentary: Why Dell is scurrying to cover its tracks in Linspire
    123. 2004-07-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Commentary: Patched in 60 Seconds
    124. 2004-07-09 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> RE: [hangout] Commentary: Patched in 60 Seconds
    125. 2004-07-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Commentary: Patched in 60 Seconds
    126. 2004-07-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] UNIGROUP Field Trip Meeting: 15-JUL-2004: Solaris 10 Launch Event
    127. 2004-07-09 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Getting to Know Linux Class - July 24, 2004 (NYPC)
    128. 2004-07-09 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] [Fwd: [wwwac] HOPE 2600 This weekend (NYC)] (fwd)
    129. 2004-07-09 Billy <billy-at-dadadada.net> Re: [hangout] [Fwd: [wwwac] HOPE 2600 This weekend (NYC)] (fwd)
    130. 2004-07-08 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] who is our contact at novell
    131. 2004-07-08 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Free 10 GB Novell Resource Kit: Get SuSE Linux for
    132. 2004-07-08 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Free 10 GB Novell Resource Kit: Get SuSE Linux for Free
    133. 2004-07-08 Jacek Blizinski <azidog-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] Free 10 GB Novell Resource Kit: Get SuSE Linux =?iso-8859-1?q?for=09Free?=
    134. 2004-07-08 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [Fwd: [wwwac] HOPE 2600 This weekend (NYC)] (fwd)
    135. 2004-07-08 Jacek Blizinski <azidog-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] Free 10 GB Novell Resource Kit: Get SuSE Linux for Free
    136. 2004-07-08 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Anti-Spam Web Site (Great Info)
    137. 2004-07-08 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Subject: [hangout] who is our contact at novell
    138. 2004-07-08 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] New 1G Email Service Available - www.walla.com
    139. 2004-07-08 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Free 10 GB Novell Resource Kit: Get SuSE Linux for Free
    140. 2004-07-08 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Video Recording
    141. 2004-07-08 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Video Recording
    142. 2004-07-08 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Video Recording
    143. 2004-07-07 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Re: Linix Users Group/In Princeton
    144. 2004-07-07 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] NYLXS Trip to Princeton
    145. 2004-07-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Re: Linix Users Group/In Princeton
    146. 2004-07-07 Ruben Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] In-service
    147. 2004-07-07 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Software Freedom Day Contribution
    148. 2004-07-07 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Re: [hangout] In-service
    149. 2004-07-07 Michael Richardson <MRichardson-at-abc.state.ny.us> Subject: [hangout] In-service
    150. 2004-07-07 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] Dell to Offer Linux-Loaded PCs in Europe (fwd)
    151. 2004-07-06 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Re: [hangout] changing date of ldap inservice
    152. 2004-07-06 Ruben I Safir <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] changing date of ldap inservice
    153. 2004-07-06 From: "Paul Robert Marino" <rob-at-concord.altschools.org> Subject: [hangout] changing date of ldap inservice
    154. 2004-07-06 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Linux, Still an Awkward Alternative (Washington Post)
    155. 2004-07-06 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Spam Assasin is a COMPLETE Piece of ...
    156. 2004-07-06 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Spam Assasin is a COMPLETE Piece of ...
    157. 2004-07-05 Mike Richardson - NYLXS PRESIDENT <miker-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [Fwd: Re: [politics] France has only 800 soldiers in Afghanistan]
    158. 2004-07-04 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] blowing up Small Schools
    159. 2004-07-04 From: "Ruben I Safir - Secretary NYLXS" <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> RE: [hangout] In Service Program
    160. 2004-07-02 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> Subject: [hangout] Hunter College has Linux Courses!
    161. 2004-07-02 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] In Service Program
    162. 2004-07-02 From: "Inker, Evan" <EInker-at-gam.com> RE: [hangout] Defending Small Schools
    163. 2004-07-02 Ron Guerin <ron-at-vnetworx.net> Re: [hangout] Defending Small Schools
    164. 2004-07-01 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Re: [hangout] Defending Small Schools
    165. 2004-07-01 From: "Steve Milo" <slavik914-at-mrbrklyn.com> Re: [hangout] Defending Small Schools
    166. 2004-07-01 Adam Kosmin <akosmin-at-nyc.rr.com> Subject: [hangout] forwarding mail
    167. 2004-07-12 Ruben Safir Secretary NYLXS <ruben-at-mrbrklyn.com> Subject: [hangout] [jays-at-panix.com: [orgcom-mgmt] puck info for orgcom mailing list (fwd)

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